Police in the service of peace : excerpts from the report by the Swedish Committee of Inquiry on Civilian Police in International Activities
nå (— ; U.! ( &
National Library of Sweden
; E- Excerpts from the Report by the Swedish Committee of Inquiry & on Civilian Police in International Activities
POLICE 'N THE SERVICE of PEACE ggg/
ExCerpts from the Report by the Swedish ”COmmittee. of lncl-uify on Civilian P.Olicejn International: ACfiViities; .
& (war/OSV %
This is an unofflcial translation.
MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS 103 39 STOCKHOLM
Printed by: NORSTEDTS TRYCKERI AB Stockholm 1997
ln December 1996, the Swedish Government decided to appoint a Committee of Inquiry with the task of proposing guidelines for civilian police partcipation in international activities. The Committee was asked to report, analyse and judge the contributions made so far by Swedish civilian police officers in international activities. Further, the Committee was requested to make an estimate of future international demand for the participation of Swedish civilian police omcers. Finally, the Committee was requested to present a proposal for the organization and administration of activities involving Swedish civilian police oficers.
The work of the Committee was led by the former State Secretary, Nils Gunnar Billinger. The Committee was composed of representatives from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Justice, the Swedish International Development Agency, the Swedish Military Command and the Swedish National Police Board.
The Committee submitted its report - Police in the service of Peace — in June 1997.
This booklet contains two chapters of the Committee 's report, namely its summary and the Committee 's conclusions.
1 SUMMARY .................................................................................................... 7 2 CONSIDERATIONS, ESTIMATES AND PROPOSALS .......................... 16 2.1 THE NEED FOR GUIDELINEs FOR POLICE ACTIVITIEs ........................................ 16 2.2 NEW CONCEPTS ............................................................................................ 18 2.3 THE CHARACTER AND DEVELOPMENT OF CONFLICTs ....................................... 18 2.4 IMPORTANT TASKS IN A PEACE-PROMOTING MISSION ....................................... 21 2.5 LEGAL BASIS FOR PEACE-PROMOTING ACTIVITIEs ........................................... 23 2.6 THE TASK OF CREATING SECURITY AND ORDER ............................................... 24
2.6.1 Definitions and problem formulation .................................................... 24 2.6.2 Increased preparedness for police tasks in military units ...................... 28 2.6.3 The responsibility of international police forces for order and security 32 2.7 FUTURE TASKS AND THE ESTIMATED NEED FOR POLICE PARTICIPATION ............ 33 2.8 THE SWEDISH PARTICIPATION WITH POLICE OFFICERS ..................................... 35 2.9 THE ARMING OF THE POLICE FORCE ................................................................ 38 2.10 MORE EFFICIENT POLICE ACTIVITIES WITHIN UN .......................................... 39 2.1 1 HIGHER LEVEL OF PREPAREDNEss FOR INTERNATIONAL POLICE ACTIVITIEs ....44 2.12 THE NATIONAL POLICE BOARD ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY ............................ 50 2.13 TRAINING AND RECRUITING ........................................................................ 56
2.14 FINANCING ................................................................................................. 59
The aim of the inquiry
According to the directives given to the Committee of Inquiry (hereinafter referred to as the Committee), the task of this inquiry is
0 to present a proposal regarding Swedish guidelines for activities with civilian police
. to make an estimate of the future international demand for Swedish participation in activities with civilian police
' to present proposals for how activities with Swedish civilian police can be organized and administered, and how training can be carried out
' to report and analyse Swedish experiences from participation in international civilian police activities
In its work, the Committee has also analysed the question Of the anning of an international police force.
As peace-promoting efforts during recent years have to an increasing extent been carried out in regard to internal conflicts where the legal system has been weakened or has collapsed, the role and authority of the international police efforts have attracted attention. In this context, the Committee has considered which components in an international mission should collaborate in the task of maintaining security and order for the population while the national authorities responsible for maintaining justice are established or reconstructed.
Background and tasks
The first Swedish contribution with police officers in international peace- promoting service was decided upon in April 1964 and was then related to the established force on Cyprus. The Swedish police officers were there included in a multinational police department which acted parallel to a military force. Thereafter, it was not until 1989 that the United Nations (UN) again employed police in a peace-promotion mission. This was in the decolonization of Namibia. Thereafter, the number of UN-missions has increased strongly. Most of these have included a police component. In June 1997, Sweden has approximately 100 police officers in peace-promotion service. Most of these are employed in the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military Command and are consequently on leave from police service. Before departure, the Swedish police officers undergo one general and one mission—directed training course at the Swedish Armed Forces International Centre SWEDINT in Almnäs, Södertälje.
The police tasks in this context have primarily been:
0 to monitor the local police with the aim of making sure that they obey the national laws and respect human rights.
. to train the national police
0 to support the local police in its professional work
In some cases, an international police force has replaced a non-existing national police service and has thus had an executive function, e.g. in Cambodia and Haiti.
Most Of these efforts have been carried out by police who have been part of an unarmed civilian police unit, "CIVPOL", in a peace-promoting mission established by UN. These police officers have as a rule lived closer to the civilian population than do military units. In spite of the increasing importance Of the police as conflict-solving instruments, guidelines for their work have been deficient or lacking.
The Committee has found that the hitherto used concept of "civilian police" is no longer suitable. The word has probably been created to mark the difference from military police, the task of which is to maintain order within a military unit. Police have now become so common in peace- promoting missions that there is no longer any risk of confusion. The Committee proposes that instead of the title "civilian police", the personnel should be designated in a way which corresponds to their actual work tasks. The new titles should be police Observer or police adviser.
New types of conflict and new types of international activities or efforts
The majority of the conflicts which today motivate peace—promoting contributions are domestic in character. Civil wars are certainly no new phenomenon but the number of domestic conflicts has increased during recent years. Many of these new conflicts have considerable multidimensional elements. This means that they are characterized by political, religious or ethnic conflicts between the parties, which in many cases lead to ethnic purging and other serious crimes against human rights, flows of refugees and irregular military units. In many cases, events have progressed so far that the social structure is close to collapse or has collapsed. The police system and other legal authorities have ceased to function or have lost the confidence of the population. The consequences for the civilian population are in most cases very serious. This type of conflict is often regarded as a newer type as opposed to the previous conflicts which have been subject to international intervention. These were often of a classic international character with easily identifiable parties.
For UN and other organizations devoted to peace and security, the conditions to act have been radically improved. The Security Council, which often used to be paralysed because the permanent members diligently used their veto, now acts in a completely different way in both internal and international conflicts.
Maintaining order and security for the population
In a state characterized by open fighting and by the collapse of the national judicial system, the first important task for a peace—promoting effort is to create basic Stability and security by separating the fighting parties and thereafter monitoring a truce. This is a task which can be solved by a military unit which is included in an international peace—promoting
force. It is now also common that a police component is included in such an action.
In order for a peace—promoting mission to have a long-term effect, this should aim at re—creating a legal system which is based on a respect for human rights. The work of building up the police system takes place initially by monitoring the national police by e.g. joint patrols and frequent visits to police stations. Any infringements of the national laws or violations of human rights are reported routinely to higher levels within the UN- system. The work is gradually extended into training the national police. Important elements in this activity are the establishment of principles for how a police force acts in a state govemed by law and to impart information about human rights.
Between the task of creating security by separating or disarming the fighting parties with a military force and the task of collaborating in reestablishing a legal systern, which is the task Of the international police, there is a grey zone relating to who shall be responsible for the task of creating security for the population in the mission area. In the areas where a peace-promoting force acts, there is often a condition in which the national police and judicial apparatus have not yet begun to function. At the same time, there are individuals or groups there who indulge in gross political violence. They constitute a threat to the population at the same time as the international force has strongly reduced possibilities of acting. In such situations, international peace-promoting forces are in certain cases required to maintain order and security for the local population. There is a tendency for this task to lie between the task of the military force and that of the police force, i.e. in a grey zone.
Clearer division of responsibilities
The international police force as a rule lacks arms, training and protection to be able to intervene against riots and disturbances with any probability of success. If the police were to carry out such executive tasks as might require the use of violence, their possibilities of completing the real work task would hardly be fulfilled.
The Committee therefore proposes that police observers and police advisers in the future should also be assigned mainly to tasks of a kind which they have previously been given, i.e. monitoring, training and advising the local police. It is not suitable for international police forces to
be assigned executive tasks of the type which may jeopardize their potential to solve the main tasks.
One possibility for the international community to help the national authorities to create order and security could under certain conditions be to organize gendarme units. This means a heavily armed police force, located in barracks, trained in acting as a unit and equipped with protection in the form of e.g. armoured transport vehicles. This would mean that a new structure is created, hitherto never tested in an international context, which is largely parallel to a peace-promoting military force. A condition for this to succeed is that the intemationally composed unit is trained to act as a unit. The Committee does not think it suitable to establish international gendarme units.
Since the Committee rejects the possibility of giving international police or gendarme forces the task of assisting the national authorities in maintaining law and order, it remains to test the possibility of giving this task to military units.
In Sweden, as in other democracies, the national division of responsibility between the police and military systems is clearly defined in the laws of the country. In the grey zone described here, however, there is a situation where the division of responsibility between the military and police of the Western state govemed by law is not always applicable. An international military force acts as a unit, located in barracks and equipped to be able to act in areas exposed to violence. The Committee therefore considers it suitable that military units included in a peace-promoting mission should be prepared and trained to a greater extent in order, when required, to be able to cO-Operate in solving the task of maintaining order and security for the population in the mission area. TO make this possible, the units should during their time of preparation before departure be trained for this task by instructors who are police officers. The police system possesses a documented knowledge of how to handle special events such as violent demonstrations, riots, sports violence etc. By adding such knowledge to the training of a military peace-promoting unit, the possibility increases of using military units in peace-promoting missions to maintain order and security, if the mandate permits this. A military unit with such tasks should include posts manned by police officers. The conditions for placing such a unit under temporary police command under certain carefully controlled and previously determined conditions should be investigated more carefully by the Swedish Military Command and the National Police Board.
The responsibility of international police forces for order and security
Police officers in peace-promoting activities can, although the main task is to monitor, train and guide the local police, play a greater role than before in creating and then maintaining order and security for the population. They can through their presence contribute to the creation of order. This can take place through applying a more proactive behaviour. This means that the police officers show large mobility within their area and apply a flexible choice of methods. Through good relations with the local population and local authorities and through a close interaction with other components in a mission, the conditions for an early identification of local problems and their reasons are improved. A suitable measure can then be to rapidly use police observers to mediate between the parties and thereby defuse an uneasy situation.
In order to reinforce the effect of & proactive behaviour from the police, military units can be given the task of supporting the police efforts, e.g. by showing their presence in exposed places on certain occasions. The importance of a police force for the security of the population can thus be reinforced further if co-operation with the military units is increased. This can take place through mutual planning and through high flexibility and mobility of both the military and police parts of the mission. The ultimate responsibility for this lies with the highest ranking officer and his staff.
The Committee proposes that new methods should be developed which make it possible for the police to take a greater responsibility for the order and security of the population in a conflict area.
The police and the military units should develop new and flexible forms of collaboration in peace-promoting activities where the special knowledge of each are able to complement each other.
Increased international demand for police Officers
The Committee estimates that the demand for police officers in peace- promoting activities will increase in the future. The traditional assignments of monitoring and advice will still be the main task. The demand will also increase since activities with police will to a greater extent be included as a part of the humanitarian support and development aid in connection with the recreation or rebuilding of the judicial system in a conflict area. It should be observed that female police officers have a special potential for winning the
confidence of those who have been exposed to traumatic experiences during a conflict.
Sweden should be prepared to make about 125 police officers available at the same time for longer periods of international peace—promoting service. Sweden should further be prepared to make about 150 police officers available for a maximum period of twelve months.
More efficient organization of the police activity
UN' organization has not been developed at the same rate as the police activities have increased in extent. Experience from the fourteen UN— missions with police components in which Sweden has participated shows that UN has often found it difficult to formulate clear tasks in the mandates and other documents. Within the UN Secretariat in New York, the number of police officers is small. Another difficulty is that certain police officers are not qualified for the task.
The Committee proposes that
. The mandate for a police force should be defined separately from the mandate of any military force
' Persons with international police experience should participate when mandates and tasks are being forrnulated
. Police competence should be found in more Departments within the UN Secretariat in New York
. Sweden should act to increase the competence of the international police forces. Sweden should, like other countries which are able to do so, place resources at the disposal of future police observers and police advisers
. UN should be given increased possibilities to provide information about its task to the population in a mission area
System for more rapid deployment of police When UN or some Other organization has decided on a peace-promoting
force, it is important that it arrives rapidly and can act to the intended extent. It has proven difficult for both UN and for many police—contributing
countries, including Sweden, to be able to act sufficiently rapid in the mission area.
The Committee proposes as follows
. UN should create a system for the early selection of key personnel for future police forces and prepare a standardized organization plan for these forces, comparable with that for a corresponding military headquarters . Sweden should encourage a change in UN' routines so that the decisions about missions and of their financing coincide in time
' UN should prepare plans for the purchase of standardized materials and for the initial maintenance of police forces
0 The Swedish Government should give the National Police Board the task of preparing a system which makes it possible to send Swedish police officers abroad at short notice in peace-promoting service
The National Police Board assumes responsibility
Sweden lacks a collected responsibility for its international police activity, since neither the National Police Board nor the Swedish Military Command have been expressly assigned such a task. The National Police Board carries out the recruiting without a formal commission and the Swedish Military Command is responsible through SWEDINT for training, equipment and administration of the police for the period during which they are part of the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military Command.
Even if the daily collaboration between the two authorities is good, a divided responsibility means certain obvious disadvantages. No authority is today responsible for the long-term planning and method-development of the concept of police in peace-promoting service. These deficiencies are expected to become more marked when police officers become a more common part of the humanitarian aid or development aid programmes.
With the aim of producing a more efficient organization without reducing the advantages of the present system, the Committee proposes as follows.
. The National Police Force should be assigned a collective national responsibility for all international police activity such as training, employer responsibility during service abroad, methodological and doctrinal development and staff welfare after the homecoming. This should be achieved by creating a Foreign Force within the Police Force which as far as is possible and is suitable shall act under the same conditions as the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military Command. The National Police Board and the Swedish Military Command should collaborate in this organizational change.
2. Considerations, estimates and proposals
2.1. The need for guidelines for police activities
Since peace—promoting efforts during recent years has to an increasing extent taken place in regard to internal conflicts where the legal systern has been weakened or has collapsed, the role and mandate of international police efforts have been subject to discussion and analysis. The task of this inquiry is to offer proposals for guidelines for the role of the police in peace—promoting activities, to analyse the question of armament and in this context to consider the responsibility for different tasks concerning civil security and order, while national judicial authorities are being built up or reconstructed.
Several peace-promotion missions since the first Congo operation have included different forms of police activity, from advice to local police forces to active co-operation in maintaining law and order. Most of this work has been carried out by police officers who have been part of a civil police unit "CIVPOL" in a peace-promotion mission established by UN. Although the police is included as an important element in peace—promotion efforts and although this activity has continued for several decades, guidelines for this type of activity have been deficient or lacking. The mandates give only a general direction and the documents which describe tasks and responsibilities vary in dignity from resolutions adopted by the Security Council to local agreements. In Sweden, civilian police activities have been treated only in general terms by the Government. Guidelines or doctrines are lacking for how police activities shall be designed and how public security shall be maintained in a peace-promotion operation. The responsibility for
specifying tasks and guidelines has been given to those who have had the active responsibility in each mission. Nor, until most recently, has police work been subject to analysis in the intensive international debate about peace-promoting efforts.
A further reason why it is necessary to create Clarity about the meaning of the concept of police work is that the traditional "civilian police efforts" is often hindered by incorrect expectations. The primary aim of this traditional "civilian police efforts" has been to monitor, guide and train the local police - not to create security for the local population through direct contributions to the maintenance of law and order, which is often expected.
Most of the conflicts which today motivate peace-promoting contributions are domestic. Civil wars are certainly no new phenomenon, but the number of domestic conflicts has increased dramatically during recent years. Many of these new conflicts are to a great extent multidimensional. This means that, besides political and armed antagonism between the parties, they have radical social and sometimes also international ramifications, e.g. ethnic purging, other serious crimes against human rights, refugee flows and actions by irregular military units. In many cases, the conflict has progressed so far that the social structure is close to collapse or has collapsed. The police system and other judicial authorities have ceased to function or have lost the confidence of the people. The consequences for the civil population are in most cases very serious.
To monitor and ensure the observance of human rights has become an increasingly important task in peace-promoting efforts. The security of the civil population is a basic condition for being able to rebuild a society after a conflict. In all peace—promoting activities, work with such security questions therefore assumes a central place. Security can be achieved for the local population through intervention by international peace-promoting forces. These can also in certain cases take responsibility for maintaining law and order before national judicial authorities have been created or reconstructed and before confidence in these has been re-established. If a peace—promoting mission succeeds in the task of creating a stable and secure environment, the possibility of succeeding in other effective and long-term measures improves considerably.
2.2. New concepts
Units with police officers in peace-promoting or similar activities should be called an International Police Force or where appropriate a UN Police Force. The individual police officer should be called a Police Observer or Police Adviser or should be otherwise terrned to correspond to the task.
The concept of "civilian police activities" is imprecise and should be replaced by the concept of International Police Activities. The force should be designated an International Police Force or where appropriate a UN Police Force. In the documents which govem the activity in the mission area, a distinction should be made between Police Observer and Police Adviser. These concepts should be used both in multilateral activities and within the framework of bilateral activities. The Committee notes that developments are already taking place in this direction and Sweden should act for a continued separation of these concepts. A police presence in peace- promoting activities has during the 1990s become so common that it is no longer justifiable to use the word ”civilian" to distinguish these police from military police. In everyday Swedish, the term "civilian police" is not used either.
2.3. The character and development of conflicts Considerations
In connection with the establishment of a peace-promoting mission, the categories currently given by UN and other organs are used to describe the character and purpose of the mission. Concepts such as peacekeeping, wider peacekeeping, peace enforcement, peace building etc. indicate roughly what type of contribution is required and what authority the force has. In the inquiries made to Member States about contributions to peace-promoting activities, military units and police contingents are spoken of in general
terms. ln certain UN-operations, it is obvious that a force consisting of police officers has been recruited and sent to the mission area without the decision having been preceded by a sufficient analysis of the problems to be solved and without a clear idea of the tasks for which the international police force can take responsibility. To increase the efficiency of the measures and to improve the probability of success, a better analysis is required both of the problems to be solved and of the contributions and authority which are required. A comprehensive and long-term view must be developed so that peace—promoting measures and aid measures can be linked together to increase the efficiency of the effort and at the same time minimize the costs.
A step in this work is to analyse the character and development of a conflict. There is no unambiguous way of describing and analysing a conflict process. All conflicts are unique. It is however possible to describe schematically the different levels or different phases of a conflict. Different phases and levels can overlap each other. A crisis development is not linear; setbacks can occur. Nor is a crisis always equally serious in all parts of the crisis area.
Common to many of the conflicts which are today subjected to peace- promoting measures is that they require an input of different components with different tasks. The actions thereby become multifunctional. The different components in a mission can vary between different conflicts, and with time within a conflict.
The initial phase or the chaotic phase
In a situation characterized by open fighting and by the fragmentation or dissolution of the national authority or police force, the first important task is to create basic stability and security. This is in general a task for military units. Different armed groups can only be separated and disarmed by units which act under military emergency powers regulations.
Even after open fighting has ceased, military units can be required. The situation can e.g. be disturbed by serious riots and domestic armed groups. Because of the fire power which these large or small groups often possess, this is a task for military units. If the legal system is weak, the forces which arrive first may also need to take the responsibility for creating law and order.
The completion or normalization phase
In order to be able to complete a peace-promoting effort, a reasonably functioning state govemed by law with relevant authorities must have been re-created. In the task of creating & new police system and a new judicial system, an international police force has an important task. Above all, it can monitor the national police and contribute to establishing principles for how a police officer shall act in a state govemed by the rule of law. The involvement can take place either as a multinational contribution or as a bilateral contribution. An international police force can also collaborate in the appointment of a new police corps and assist with training and equipment.
The grey zone
Between the task of creating security and the task of participating in rebuilding a judicial system there is a grey zone. It can either be described as a gap between different functions or as a gap across time between different contributions. In a situation where a national authority or legal apparatus has not yet begun to function and where individuals or groups use gross violence for political or criminal reasons, international peace- promoting activities are required to maintain security for the local population and for aid workers.
In such a grey zone, the international military units have the given task of monitoring domestic military units and arms depots, maintaining separation zones etc. The international police force also has a given task in monitoring and participating in the reconstruction of an often weak national police force. The task of assisting in the maintenance of order and security for the population has a tendency in such situations to fall between the task of the military force and that of the police force.
2.4. Important tasks in a peace-promoting mission
In order to specify the type of contribution and the mandate which are required to reach a goal, there is reason to describe, from an analysis of the conflict concerned, the concrete tasks for an international force consisting of military units, police, judicial experts and other Specialists. Examples of such tasks are:
o to dampen disturbances through a presence and by "on-the-spot- diplomacy/mediation"
to carry out measures to repel an attacker to carry out measures to separate fighting parties to establish and man buffer zones between the parties' troops to monitor a cease-fire to monitor the regrouping and demobilization of forces to clear away ammunition (mines etc.) to collect weapons
to guard arms depots to monitor and assist in disanning military units and paramilitary groups
Category c (the grey zone)
to control riots and disturbances to intervene against armed "gangs" to maintain civil law and order to discover and prevent crimes, e.g. plundering to maintain order and security during election preparations to monitor and assist in disarming civilians to escort civilians in violence-prone areas to protect refugees in refugee camps from armed elements
o to monitor the local police force . to participate in the training of the local police force . to give advice and support in the establishment or ' restructuring of a new local police system
0 to assist in taking care of refugees and homeless people . to integrate disanned forces into civilian life . to promote the repatriation and reintegration of refugees and internal refugees . to provide humanitarian help in connection with rebuilding . to give support in the rebuilding of a judicial system and other administration
0 to monitor that human rights are respected 0 to co-ordinate support for economic recovery and rebuilding . to monitor elections
Tasks under category a) can be carried out by diplomats, military observers or police observers. For such tasks, people are often recruited who have a long experience and good skills in mediation and negotiation.
Tasks under category b) can only be carried out by military units. For several of these tasks, a mandate is required which allows the use of violence other than in self—defence, i.e. a mandate which is based on chapter VII in the UN Charter.
Tasks under category d ) are carried out by police officers. To fulfil these tasks, they have no executive authority but act as monitors, observers, advisers and instructors. Other civilian experts within the legal field are also required to rebuild a legal system.
Tasks under category e) are carried out by civilian experts, e.g. monitors of human rights and aid workers. In the Swedish case, recruiting has in certain cases intentionally taken place within the police system. The tasks under category e) are under certain conditions carried out together with an international police force which acts in the area.
Tasks under category c ), the "grey zone", involve the creation of security and order for the population. The tasks can be carried out by military units, police officers and soldiers in cooperation or by gendarmes and soldiers in co-operation. Contributions of this kind can require a mandate with certain elements of authorization according to chapter VII in the UN Charter. This argument is developed in a later section.
2.5. Legal basis for peace-promoting activities
All exercise of power in a peace—promoting or similar mission must build on a legal foundation connected to the international legal regulations. A characteristic feature of a civil war or crisis is that the legal system does not function. The civilian population has often lost confidence in the legal apparatus and in the legislation which exists. The police and military may even be accomplices in serious crimes in violation of both human rights and the national legislation. In certain cases, the social structure may have collapsed totally and anarchy may prevail.
In situations where the local legal apparatus does not exist or cannot fulfil its task, a peace-promoting force, regardless of whether it consists of military units or police officers, faces great difficulties. In these situations, it is often unclear whether the authorities indicated in the mandate and SOFA constitute sufficient legal support to intervene and protect the population. It is further often unclear according to which national law, one shall act in such cases.
In more difficult cases, the international peace—promoting forces must act under emergency power legislation described in the mandate. When the legal apparatus has collapsed or has otherwise lost its legitimacy, the task can be limited to monitoring that human rights are respected. It may even be necessary in certain cases to start from an agreed minimum level regarding law and rights. This can e.g. mean intervention against gross violations of human rights and humanity laws, e.g. murder, kidnapping, rape and gross property crimes. The degree of intervention which can be applied must in such cases rest completely on international law. If it is a question of a UN— operation, or an operation mandated by the UN Security Council, it should be possible to derive this authority from chapter VI or VII in the UN Charter. This means that the command lines must be so clear that it is
possible to derive the responsibility for measures taken in the field all the way up to the organ which has given the mission its mandate.
In the final phase of a conflict, or in less serious situations in a conflict, there is in general a national law from which to start. The aim of all peace— promoting activity must be that, when the mission is completed, there shall exist a national judicial system which functions and a national law to be followed. Even during an ongoing mission, the main rule shall be to start from the national judicial system. The task for the international operation then becomes to monitor that the local legal authorities adhere to the established legal order. This is usually a task for police observers and police advisers. Another possibility is that the host country gives an international force the right to exercise authority. In such cases, the individual international police officers act within the legal system of the host country.
2.6. The task of creating security and order 2.6.1 Definitions and problem formulation Considerations
In a previous section, it was established that in any decision regarding peace-promoting efforts, it is essential to define at an early stage, and before the mission begins, which tasks are to be solved. Parallel with this work, attention should be given to the question of which instruments, i.e. which components in a peace-promoting contribution, can solve the tasks involved. It is important that the organization giving the mandate, which as a rule is the UN, observes that there can be urgent tasks involved which none of the traditionally available components is especially trained or suitable for solving. If a decision is nevertheless made to create a peace—promoting mission, all participants should be aware of the " grey zones" which exist. The organization giving the mandate should make an effort to find as soon as possible, or to train within the mission, a component which can solve the tasks which arise within the "grey zones". This report will below develop the discussion of the choice of tool (component) to solve the task of creating order and security.
In Sweden, as in other democracies, the division of responsibility between the police and the military is clearly defined in the laws of the country. The task of the military organization is to protect the country against external threats. The police is recruited, trained and organized to maintain law and order within the country. The police has certain forcible means at its disposal. It can with legal support exercise a certain violence which shall, however, always be in proportion to what the situation requires. The police is the only civilian organ which in peacetime can use violence in its exercise of power. Military personnel have in peacetime such authority only in the cases indicated in the Ordinance (19821756) concerning the intervention of the Swedish Military Command organisation in the event of a violation of Swedish territory during peace and neutrality etc. (the IKFN-ordinance).
A state govemed by the rule of law is characterized e.g. by the fact that all exercise of power takes place with the support of laws which are decided upon in a democratic manner. A national police force therefore acts in a politically controlled environment where questions about legal authority, power and control are important elements. For the police to be able to act, it must have the people's confidence. This can only be attained if there are generally accepted laws and other statutes which control the activity of both the citizens and the police. Further, it is generally required that individual officers have wide experience and good judgement and that they use their intuition in the executive role.
Swedish police who participate in peace-promoting activities have a good insight into and understanding of work within the law. They are used to working singly or in small groups. On the other hand, they have little experience of working in units such as platoons or companies or of creating security and order in environments characterized by heavy violence.
During their normal duty, Swedish police officers are equipped only with pistols. The use of weapons is strictly controlled. In their duties, police officers may use only that degree of violence which is in proportion to what the situation requires. This means that police officers can use their weapons in certain cases.
Swedish military units are trained and organized for fighting under military laws against a military opponent. Military personnel usually work in units, not singly. The units consist of groups which together form platoons. These in turn form companies which are included in a battalion.
Several battalions together form a brigade. Military personnel are not assumed to have any knowledge about those sections of the law under which general order is maintained during peacetime, nor are they trained in solving such tasks. Swedish UN-units consist mainly of persons who have undergone a basic military training which has later been complemented with a shorter period of training for peace-promoting activities.
In several countries, a special form of police force, gendarmes, has been created to act outside both the police systern and the military systern. Gendarrne forces have evident military characteristics, e.g. in that they are trained to act in units. They are intended to act within the borders of the country and are responsible for the internal order in situations involving riots or heavy violence.
Thus, there is no force which can "naturally" be given the task of creating security and order. Experience from several peace-promoting missions during the latest ten years shows that a grey zone therefore often develops in a situation where none of the components in an international peace— promoting force is trained or otherwise prepared to create order and security. This obstructs and delays the effort to give the subjected country security and conditions for a democratic development.
The reasons why none of the parties in a peace—promoting mission solves or wishes to solve the urgent task of creating order and security are several. One reason is often that the task is not mentioned in the mandate or in any other document which indicates the tasks. This can in turn be attributed to a hesitance on the part of the police— and troops-contributing countries to undertake such a task. The legal basis for executive tasks is often unclear. The creation of order and security also assumes that there is a functioning judicial apparatus otherwise, e.g. a prosecutor system, courts and prisons. A further reason can be an unwillingness in the host country to allow foreign personnel to carry out these tasks. Accordingly, no preparations or exercises are made to solve such tasks either by international police forces or military units.
Among military personnel, both within and outside Sweden, there is further a great doubt about undertaking the task of being responsible for security and order in a civil environment. This depends e.g. on the fact that the personnel lack education, training and experience of such situations. This means that there is always a risk that military methods used in a civil
environment escalate the conflict so that there is a risk that the use of violence in the area may assume uncontrollable forms. It further conflicts against the division of responsibility in a democracy for military personnel to be responsible for civil security and order.
Gendarme forces have never been organized in international peace— keeping missions. On the other hand, several countries have recruited gendarmes as participants in international police forces (CIVPOL). Gendarmes have different tasks and different organizations in different countries, and this makes it doubtful whether an international perfomance- organization at a reasonable cost would be able to create an international gendarme force for peace-promoting activities.
For police observers and police advisers (civilian police in the traditional meaning), a basic condition, according to many commentators, for success in the tasks of monitoring, training and giving advice to the local police, is that they are unarmed, live among the population and are perceived to be impartial. If they were given more arms and had executive tasks in riots and disturbances, the potential for succeeding with the ordinary tasks would probably decrease.
Order and security in peace-promoting work
Nevertheless, it is necessary that a force in certain peace-promoting missions is given the task of participating in the task of maintaining order and security. Such work must rest on the basis of international law. A peace-promoting mission which is employed in a country which has collapsed and which is ravaged by civil war or plagued by irregular units is placed in a situation where the division of responsibility between military and the police, as in a Western state govemed by the rule of law, is not always applicable.
The task of creating security and order in the initial phase of such a mission can only be carried out by military units. In a later situation when the open fighting has ceased and an intemationally supervised peace process has begun, a transitional period of several years often arises during which violence and lawlessness still occur. The groups which have a lot to lose from a peace can carry out more or less open fighting to regain lost territory. In these situations, national authorities which can oppose this violence are often lacking. Anxiety and fear of reprisals are common among the population.
ln such a situation, the task of creating security and order can be at least partly carried out by military units or in collaboration by military units and an international police force within a peace—promoting mission or by an international gendarme force. On the other hand, the task cannot in general be given to an unarmed or a lightly armed international police force. The heavy armament which can often be found in the illegal "gangs" and the low threshold which as a rule exists for the use of violence makes it difficult for an unarmed or lightly armed international police force to have any effect. Such a force runs the risk of being ignored or of provoking the use of violence, due to the fact that the armed citizens or groups to be passivated command such heavy weapons that only a unit with military training and equipment can meet the threats which arise. The riots and disturbances which can arise are also of such a type that it is usually only a military unit that can solve the task. The military units which are assigned such tasks have as a rule solved them without enthusiasm. Sometimes, the task has not been solved at all, which has led to great suffering for the civilian population.
2.6.2. Increased preparedness for police tasks in military units
Organizations giving mandates should clearly indicate what responsibility the components included in the mission have for maintaining order and security for the population.
Military units in peace-promoting activities should . to a greater extent be prepared and trained to co-operate, when required,
in solving the task of maintaining order and security for the population in the area ' be trained for this task by instructors who are police officers ' include posts which are manned by police officers
Further, it should be possible under certain circumstances to place military units in peace-promoting missions, who are trained and prepared to maintain order and security in the mission area, under police command when this type of task is to be solved. The Government should assign to the
Swedish Military Command and the National Police Board the task of studying more closely the conditions for giving military units such tasks.
The Committee considers that police observers and police advisers should also in the future be assigned tasks of the kind entrusted to them so far, i.e. to monitor, train and give advice to the local police. It is not therefore suitable that these are assigned executive tasks of the kind which jeopardize the possibility of solving the main tasks. Only in a few countries are police trained to act in units, which is a condition for being able to defeat an uprising or to take action against armed "gangs". The number of police from each police-contributing country is usually not so large that it becomes meaningful to practice these kinds of tasks in the home country before departure. If the exercise and training were to be carried out in the conflict area, it would risk taking too much attention from the main task.
The inquiry also establishes that intemationally recruited gendarme forces could probably be manned only by countries which have national gendarmes. It would cause considerable problems to coordinate the armament, work methods and leadership of such a force. If the force were assigned heavy weapons and vehicles, which is a condition to succeed with this type of task, it would mean that a force would be built up which would be largely parallel to the military component in a peace—promoting mission. This would mean further costs for UN and other perfonnance- organizations.
The Committee further considers that it is not acceptable that an intemationally composed peace-promoting mission is delayed or even becomes impossible to carry through as a consequence of violence and terrorism caused by irregular units or other armed assailants. The "grey zone" where none of the components included in the mission has or perceives itself to have a responsibility for maintaining order and security for the population must be made as small as possible and preferably be eliminated completely. Since the Committee has already rejected the possibility of giving tasks of this character to international police departments or gendarmes, it remains to test the possibility of giving military units in peace-promoting activities an increased preparedness for carrying out certain tasks which in a national perspective are of police character.
Military units in peace-promoting missions already fulfil some of the demands which should be made on a force whose task is to maintain order and security for the population in a given area: the ability to work in a unit, access to weapons and protective transport vehicles, barracks within protected areas and an intemationally recognized staff and leadership organization which does not deviate to any great extent between the troop— contributing countries. Military forces in peace-promoting missions often have the task of monitoring regular military units and arnristice lines, of monitoring or sometimes performing the disanning of one party in the conflict or of guarding weapon depots. The methods used to solve these tasks could often be applied to irregular units or armed "gangs". It is therefore understandable that military units in peace—promoting missions have already been assigned tasks of this kind. The Committee judges that this also will take place in the future and that this is a suitable task for military units, provided that they are prepared for the task and provided that the mandate permits this.
The Committee considers that Sweden should train the military units recruited to serve in peace-promoting activities so that they can participate in solving certain tasks in the area of maintaining order. It is important that it is clear that the knowledge within this area is intended for use only in work abroad. The task shall be solved within the framework for what UN or some other international organization has decided. Training of this kind should not be given during the basic military training.
It is natural that the Swedish Military Command employs experts from the Swedish police to provide this training. Within the police system, there is a documented knowledge of how to handle so-called special occurrences such as violent demonstrations, riots, sports violence etc. By adding such knowledge in the training, the possibility increases of being able to use military units in peace-promoting missions to maintain security and order, if the mandate permits this.
A military unit strives to have personnel in its organization which possesses the required expert knowledge for solving all imaginable tasks. A unit which can be assigned police tasks should therefore in its organization include posts intended for police officers. These shall be able to participate both in the planning and in the performance of tasks of a police character. Examples of this can already be found in certain foreign battalions which act in peace-promoting missions. The police's experience of tactical behaviour, and the ability to mediate and create confidence among the civilian population should be made use of in military units which have in
their mandate the task of being responsible for civil security and order. It is natural that these police officers organizationally are included in the military unit and consequently wear military uniform.
Regarding the operative management of a police contribution to a military unit in connection with a riot, careful consideration should be given to whether the ordinary military chief should temporarily transfer the command to a police officer. Several different aspects should be weighed against each other, e.g. the ability to make a professional estimate of the situation and the importance of continuity and consistency in the exercise of the command. The Committee estimates that, in most cases, it is appropriate that the ordinary commander retains command but that the police officials' opinion should be given decisive importance when orders are given. The Committee does not however reject the possibility that, in certain situations, it may be more suitable that the command be temporarily taken over by a police officer. The conditions for this should be stated in advance and the police officer who in such a case shall assume the command should of course have been given the possibility of carrying out training exercises with the unit already during the training period in Sweden.
The demand for this type of measure is documented from several ongoing and newly completed missions. It is therefore important that Sweden in an international context acts so that more countries carry out similar arrangements. This increases the conditions for creating more versatile peace—promoting missions by reducing & troublesome " grey zone".
The Committee considers it appropriate that the Government requests that the Swedish Military Command and the National Police Board investigate more closely the conditions for giving military units police tasks of the type described above. In this context, the demand for an extended education for the peace-promoting forces and the related costs should be given special attention.
2.6.3. The responsibility of international police forces for order and security
. Methods should be developed with the aim of reinforcing the possibilities for an international police force better to carry out tasks regarding order and security for the population in the troubled area.
0 The police and the military units should develop new and flexible forms of cooperation in peace-promoting activities where the special knowledge of each is allowed to complement the other.
Police in peace-promoting activities can, although the main task is to monitor, train and guide the local police, play a greater role than before to create and then maintain order and security for the population. The police included in an international force often have great experience of negotiation and mediation. Through their presence, they can also contribute to creating order in a place. This can take place by applying a proactive behaviour to a greater extent. This means that the police show great mobility within their field and apply a flexible choice of methods with the aim of preventing incorrect action from the local police.
During the 19903, in connection with the large refugee flows in parts of Africa, armed militia have sometimes infiltrated refugee carnps and caused further suffering for already severely tried people. The possibilities of handling this and other refugee-related problems should, for example, be an aspect of method development.
Through good relations with the local population and local authorities and through close collaboration with the political components in a mission, the conditions for an early identification of local problems and their causes are improved. A suitable measure can then be to make rapid use of police observers to mediate between the parties and thereby defuse an uneasy situation. For such tasks, police officers with experience from speciflc events should be recruited.
To reinforce the effect of a proactive behaviour from the police, military units can be given the task of supporting the police work, e.g. by showing their presence in exposed places on certain occasions. The importance of a police force for the security of the population can thus be further reinforced by increasing their cooperation with the military units. This can take place through joint planning and by having a high flexibility and mobility in both the military and the police parts of the mission. The highest responsibility that this takes place in the mission area lies with the highest commander and his staff. A development of methods should take place which reinforces the ability and capacity of the police for the task of creating order and security.
2.7. Future tasks and the estimated need for police participation
The international need for police in peace-promoting activities during the coming decade will be of at least the same magnitude as during 1997. The need will probably increase. This means an increased need for Swedish police officers. In the future, it will also be a major task for international police forces to monitor, train and support the local police in a conflict area. Gradually, the demand will increase for police officers in posts other than their traditional monitoring role.
Considerations The tasks of the police
An important aim of a peace-promoting mission is to successively reinforce the possibilities for the national police to be able to maintain order and security under democratic forms and with respect for human rights. Long-term stability can only be achieved by national authorities which have the confidence of the population. After a civil war or in a situation where the judicial apparatus is weak or has collapsed, it is, as pointed out previously, essential that international support includes measures for building up and reconstructing a national system of justice in a wide sense. In the initial phase of this process, the main tasks for an international police force are as a rule as follows:
o to monitor the local police . to train the local police 0 to support the local police in their professional work
The task of monitoring the local police means to check that they respect both the national legislation and human rights in their professional work. The latter task involves e.g. checking whether the local police observe an impartial behaviour, respect minorities, treat arrested and imprisoned persons according to valid international conventions, and document different measures in ledgers and registers according to recognized standards. (These are given in United Nations Criminal Justice Standards for Peacekeeping Police). In order to determine whether the local police respect the national laws, the international police force must have a knowledge of these. Since this is often not the case, the attention to human rights becomes the dominating element in the monitoring.
Monitoring can take place through a presence at police stations, prisons and places of crime investigation, joint patrol tasks etc. The international police force can also be given the task of carrying out its own investigations and its own patrols. An important item is to report what has been observed. This makes it possible for the representative of the Secretary-General, or in certain situations the Security Council, to take the necessary measures.
In some missions, the task is to train and educate the local police. This can take place by arranging special training or education centres or by guiding the local police in their tasks. In some cases, the education can be located to some other country. The international police officers can also assist in the appointment of "new" police officers when the system of justice is to be rebuilt. This is a discreet but very important task. In many conflicts, the local police have participated in the fighting and may be guilty of serious violations of human rights. In order to create a new national police force which can win the confidence of the people, it is very important that individuals who are guilty of crimes are not employed as police officers.
For the task of re-creating a judicial system, lawyers of different kinds can also be recruited besides police officers. Intemationally recruited police officers may therefore cooperate with prosecutors, judges and prison personnel. These persons can in the initial phase also be intemationally recruited. The more successful the international society is in the work of re- establishing legal institutions and authorities in a country hit by a conflict, the greater is the potential for reaching a long-term solution to the conflict.
At present, ca 3 000 "civilian police" are engaged in peace-promoting missions. Approximately 100 of these are Swedes, 90 of whom are employed in the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military forces. It is probable that UN and other international organizations will decide to establish missions in a large number of acute crises also in the future. There are many areas and countries which are unstable and where open conflicts may break out. Further, the reverberations from the conflicts which have been the cause of peace—promoting missions during recent years will for many years still be the subject of international interest and responsibility, e.g. in the Balkans and in several African countries. These crises are or will often be of a multinational character which means that the international peace-promoting efforts will probably have a multifunctional character. International police work is expected to continue to be an essential and increasing component in this work. This is underlined by the fact that many "new" conflicts have a domestic character.
It is very difficult to estimate the magnitude of future needs. It is also difficult to indicate exact geographical regions which will be subject to civilian police activities. Practically all conflict centres can become the object of a peace—promoting contribution. The Committee estimates that the demand will increase and that the wishes for e.g. Sweden to increase its contribution will be of at least the same magnitude as they are today.
2.8. The Swedish participation with police officers
Sweden should be prepared to have permanently about 125 police officers available at the same time for service in peace-promoting abroad. Sweden should be prepared temporarily, for a maximum period of twelve months, to have about 150 police officers available at the same time. Sweden should further strive to have at least 75 police officers abroad for this type of international activity.
Special attention should be given to the importance of employing female police officers to create security and confidence in a mission-area.
The international need for police officers for peace-promoting activities is estimated to increase, as has been shown in the previous section. The demand includes police both for the traditional tasks of monitoring and educating the local police and for participating in contributions of an aid character. The traditional tasks are described in the previous section. The demand for the latter type of contribution usually arises in connection with what has earlier been described as the completion and normalization phase of a conflict. It can also be a question of participation in international tribunals of the kind which are today active in the Hague and Arusha in the area of war crimes.
An important part of Swedish aid policy is to support the democratization process and the promotion of human rights. The direction is thereby to reinforce processes and develop institutions within the state and society in general which promote the development towards peace, democracy and respect for human rights. This means e.g. long-term efforts to reinforce key institutions within the state and other parts of society. Especially important are activities which improve the public administration's openness, legitimacy and responsibility towards its commissioners, so-called good governance. To stabilize the process of building a nation, a functioning police system is very important for the population's trust in the national authorities. Experiences from recent activities with Swedish police officers in aid projects are so good that a continued involvement is motivated.
In training and in courses, it has been shown that Swedish female police officers have also filled an important function with regard to an emphasis on equality aspects. Female police in an international police force can, in addition, play a special role in creating security and confidence for a civil population exposed to traumatic events. This is true especially in relation to women who have been exposed to violence or have witnessed acts of violence towards relatives and in connection therewith have lost their confidence in men.
Experience shows that the monitoring of both elections and peace by an independent international force is strategically important in democratic elections or for the implementation of a peace agreement. SIDA estimates that police often have a professional background which makes them suitable for this type of service. SIDA has therefore intentionally recruited police officers for such a purpose. This will probably also take place in the future.
Contributions of a police nature which either support the solution of humanitarian crises or contribute to the maintenance of law and order within the framework of the rebuilding of a state govemed by law are both in Sweden and intemationally an increasingly recognized sector within aid services. This trend is expected to continue. The experience from aid contributions with police participation should be actively taken care of in future methodological development within the field of international aid.
Sweden should have a clear and realistic level of ambition regarding the total number of police officers who should serve abroad in national service in their capacity as police officers. Several factors limit the level of ambition, e.g. the international demand for Swedish police officers, the total supply of police officers in Sweden, the willingness of Swedish police officers to serve abroad, the performing organization's demands on the police officers who participate and the country's financial situation. Sweden has about 17 000 police officers, of whom about 100 serve abroad. The largest number of Swedish police officers who have served abroad at the same time is about 150. This took place during a period in the beginning of the 19905 when the number of police officers in the country was greater than it is today. The Committee notes as follows:
. There is a clear demand for Swedish police officers in international service ' There is a lack of police officers with sufficient experience and competence for international tasks . It has not so far been difficult, however, to recruit police officers for service in peace-promoting activities 0 It has not so far been difficult to finance Swedish police participation 0 Swedish police officers as a rule fulfil the formal demands made by the international organizations
The Committee considers that there should be a budgetary and organizational preparedness to increase the Swedish participation from the present level (100 police officers) to about 125 police officers. Thereafter, a gradual increase should take place in relation to the demand development. For a short time period, at the most twelve months, it should initially be possible to increase the level to about 150 police officers. Sweden should make this direction known in international contexts.
UN will continue to play a dominating role both as the organisation giving the mandate and performing the activities. The demand for police contributions has also increased in relation to UN' humanitarian activity,
e.g. the handling of massive refugee flows. In the long run, regional organizations will also be given a larger role particularly with regard to police contributions. WEU have already acted in this role and other international organizations may in the future also play an active role in a police context. In this connection, it is very important that Sweden as a police-contributing country makes sure that the organization performing the activities has the required competence and capacity to carry out a planned contribution with police officers. Sweden should strive to participate in the formulation of mandates and other basic regulations when an action is planned.
2.9. The arrning of the police force
Police officers who act as police observers or police advisers in international peace-promoting missions shall as a rule be unarmed. In exceptional cases, these police officers could be armed for self—defence.
Considerations International Police Observers
The task of police observers is not usually of an executive character. They shall monitor a national police corps, report, mediate and create calmness in the area by showing their presence in sensitive regions, so-called proactive behaviour. The possibility of solving these tasks is not improved if the police officers are armed. The international police officers need the confidence of both the local police and the civil population to be able to complete their mission. The experiences of both military observers and police observers suggest that they can complete their task best if they are unarmed. If the police officers are armed, they may be expected to perform executive tasks which the mandate in general does not permit.
In many missions, the arms possessed by different groups and criminal elements are not so heavy that arming the police observers with firearms would have any deterrent effect. Light arms usually provide no protection in these situations characterized by heavy violence in which an international
police force often acts. On the contrary, arms can have a provocative effect and worsen the security situation for the police officers. The possibility of equipping the police with heavier weapons than firearms has been rejected in a previous section. The main rule should therefore be that police observers are unarmed.
Sweden should not, however, categorically reject participation in police actions where the police observers are armed. In the WEU-led action in Mostar in Bosnia-Herzegovina and in the UN-mission on Haiti, the police observers were armed with firearms. This was because a majority of the police-contributing countries considered arms necessary to give sufficient protection in these difficult situations. Another alternative should be noted in this context. The police observers can be given access to firearms which are stored under lock until the situation is judged to be such that the police officers should be armed.
International Police Advisers
In the case of police advisers, it appears, with reference to what has been said about police observers, even Clearer that they fulfil their task best if they are unarmed. Police advisers can act either as teachers in police training or to give guidance when the local police carry out their tasks. Regardless of whether a police adviser acts together with police observers or in a later phase of the conflict when the building-up of a society is in progress, arming of the police fills no function.
2.10. More efficient police activities within UN
. The mandate for the police force in a peace-promoting mission should be stated separately from the mandate for the military force . The involved countries should give experienced police officers the opportunity to participate in the formulation of the mandate and on subsequent occasions when other documents relating to concrete police tasks are forrnulated
. Police competence should be found at more units within DPKO
0 The Civilian Police Unit within DPKO should be reinforced ' Sweden should act for a higher competence among the participating police officers by: - ensuring that all police officers who act in peace-promoting missions undergo an adequate training in the home country before departure - developing the system with proficiency test in relevant aspects — encouraging those countries which are able to do so to make available resources for the training of future police observers and police advisers - giving the UN increased possibilities of providing information about the purpose and methods of police activities in the conflict area
The Swedish attitude has for a long period of time been that a well- functioning multilateral system is an important guarantee for the creation of international peace and security, especially for small and medium-Sized countries. International police activities have proven to be very useful as conflict-solving instruments in situations where military troops or military observers have not constituted an active tool. During the period since 1989, UN has initiated several international police missions. Other organizations have also shown an interest in organizing police work. In the—foreseeable future, however, UN will be the most important international actor in the field. Swedish experiences from performed and continuing missions with Swedish participation, show that there have been many deficiencies in these missions. This has been due largely to UN' inability to act rapidly and flexibly to solve practical problems and to meet unexpected situations. A further reason for difficulties has been the inability to learn from mistakes. There is therefore good reason for Sweden to act to develop, reinforce and improve UN' potential for using police officers in peace-promoting activities.
Special difficulties have been observed when new missions are established. Proposals and considerations in this regard are given in the next section.
Mandates and other documents which define the tasks of the police
The mandates, which are approved by the UN Security Council, are political compromises which are often of a general nature, and often
intentionally so, to cover situations which are still difficult to predict. They are not always specified in the text of the resolution but are indicated in a report from the Secretary-General to the Security Council. This report is then referred to in the resolution. From experience, the mandates are in the first place designed for the military leaders in a peace—promoting mission. This means that they give only a vague guidance to the local UN-Police Comrnissioner when he shall specify the tasks for the police in the field. In order to facilitate both the start and the continuing activity, there should be a separate mandate for the international police force. This applies even in those cases where it is not possible for reasons of time to formulate a detailed mandate. "Police advisers" are not included in the UN Delegations of the member countries in the same way as there is often a military adviser. There is therefore reason to believe that police officers are not consulted in the preparation of the mandates for a police component. With the aim of avoiding unclear tasks which can be misunderstood, police officers with experience of leading international police forces should be consulted when the mandates are formulated. This can for example take place if the member countries, in the first place those which are members of the Security Council, make room for a police adviser in the national UN Delegation.
Increased police competence in the UN organization
It is common that the concrete tasks for a police force are developed and continuously changed during the mission. They are given in an SOP (Standard Operating Procedures), Rules of Engagement or in operational directives. Regardless of in which document(s) the concrete tasks are determined, it is important that qualified police officers are given the opportunity to participate. This increases the potential for using the police force in the best possible way.
A special example of the formulation of tasks for police work is given in the Dayton-agreement, appendix ll, regarding IPTF. This text has been declared by several reviewers to be the best example of a task description for a police force. The agreement was prepared under unusual forms and over a longer period of time than is as a rule available when the UN Security Council formulates a mandate.
The Committee has met difficulties in its attempts to survey the concrete tasks for UN' police forces. The tasks are given in several documents which have in some cases been difficult to trace.
In relation to the number of military officials within DPKO (Department of Peace-Keeping Operations), the Civilian Police Unit within DPKO is small. In the very important Mission Planning Cell in DPKO, there is only one police officer. The development of the UN-headquarters does not correspond in this regard to the rapid increase in the number of UN missions with police elements and the high expectations placed on the police departments in these missions. Police questions should to a greater extent be observed in the planning work within DPKO. Police advisers and administrators should therefore to a greater extent be integrated within more units of DPKO. The Civilian Police Unit should be given a greater role in the planning of new missions. The unit should also be given increased resources for developing methods and doctrines within this field of expertise.
Greater competence for the police in peace-promoting service
It is well documented from several missions that many police officers in international service are not sufficiently experienced and qualified for the tasks which are placed before them. For example, they lack knowledge of basic human rights and this makes it impossible for them to judge whether the local police follow current conventions. Knowledge of intemationally applicable rules regarding e.g. the rights of an arrested or an imprisoned person is necessary to be able to act as police Observer. Differing tasks in the home countries also mean different previous knowledge requirements for admission to the basic national police education. In countries with a federal form of government there is not always a national police corps with the same training. USA, for example, lacks such a national police corps.
Another problem is the lack of knowledge of the national language. The effect of a police action is considerably increased if the police officers have a command of the language. This is especially important if the police officers are to have executive tasks.
In general, UN strives for as broad a geographical representation as possible among the police-contributing countries. This is an expression of UN's striving for neutrality and impartiality. It also promotes global community and constitutes a condition for the organization to have the broad support required to be able to act. This striving for a geographical representativity and the same possibility for all members to participate has meant that police forces are often composed of police officers from many countries.
The general level of competence of police officers in peace—promoting service should be increased. An aim can be that the members of the international police force shall have at least the same average general training level as the police who are to be monitored. An important subsequent step is to give specialized training relating to the local conditions for the current mission. Here a few proposals are given for general competence-increasing measures to improve the conditions for an ongoing mission. (The special difficulties related to completely new missions are treated separately).
UN has observed the problems which arise as a consequence of the low competence of the international police and certain measures have been adopted to ensure a certain minimum level. This level is in some respects too low to be accepted in the long term. Further measures should be taken. Training for an international task should in principle be carried out before arrival at the conflict area. This should include a general knowledge of the UN-system and human rights and a basic knowledge of the technical equipment included in the mission. Opportunity should be given for practical training in handling different possible situations in the field and in report writing. Further, training should be given to a sufficient extent in the mission language and in vehicle driving. In this context, special attention should be given to a knowledge of the national laws in the area. It should be important for UN to collect and give information to the police— contributing countries about the most important of these laws, e.g. which civil rights apply in addition to the universal human rights. The training should also include information about the cultural, ethnic and religious traditions of the other police—contributing countries and about the tasks of the police system in each country. Such knowledge facilitates the preparations for the service.
It should therefore be important for Sweden and other police—contributing countries to contribute as far as possible to improving the training of police officers in international service. This would mean that the UN—contributions as such would have a better effect. Knowledge Checks of different kinds should be undertaken before the departure from the home country. UN should maintain and develop the system introduced in 1997 with so-called selection teams.
UN should maintain and develop the system with a collected and standardized introduction in the mission area for newly arrived police officers. The introduction should include current information about the situation in the mission area and about the practical routines applied.
Another important aim is to give police officers from different countries the possibility of establishing contacts with each other already before the work in the field begins.
The knowledge check should be fixed and maintained at a level such that the potential for the mission to act in accordance with the mandate and other current directives is not jeopardized.
Information to the population about UN ' task
When a force is established and grouped, UN should confirm with the parties in the conflict that it is possible to spread information in a suitable way to the whole population about UN' role and tasks in the area. Since a recognized and general definition of the concept of "monitor" is lacking, the interpretation of the concept becomes dependent on the special conditions at each individual mission. If a mandate is far—reaching and intended to be attained step by step without this being clearly expressed, this can in the eyes of the local population give an impression of perplexity and passivity on the part of the UN. There are examples where police officers in a UN— force have become witnesses to a criminal act such as assault and have not intervened because the mandate only allows monitoring and reporting. This type of passivity influences UN' credibility if it is not clearly explained and justified to the population.
2.11. Higher level of preparedness for international police activities
Proposal Concerning measures within UN
The Committee proposes that Sweden should act so that UN - to a greater extent allows police personnel to participate in the preparations for new missions — prepares a standardized organization plan for the headquarters in an international police force. The plan should be designed so that it facilitates cooperation with a corresponding military headquarters.
— creates so-called "HQ—elements", i.e. key personnel selected in advance and given the possibility to prepare for future missions - prepares plans for the purchase of standardized materials and for the initial maintenance of police forces — makes more rapid decisions about the financing of such a force - encourages its member countries to arrange national systems which facilitate the rapid recruiting and deployment of police officers trained for the purpose. - further develops the possibilities of evaluating completed missions. By recording and analysing experiences, the methods and organization can be systematically improved. - Arranges registers over police officers who have a documented ability to fill leadership posts.
Regarding measures in Sweden
The Committee proposes that the Government shall give the National Police Board the task of preparing a system which facilitates the deployment of Swedish police officers in international peace-promoting activities at short notice. Sweden should reinforce its Delegation to the UN in New York with a police adviser.
The experiences from peace-keeping missions during recent years indicate a need for these to be started rapidly and to have an effect shortly after the decision. Another important experience is that ongoing missions can rapidly need reinforcement or change their direction and composition. If a conflict can be frozen at an early stage and the development turned in a positive direction, this will have e.g. the following positive effects:
The suffering of the civil population decreases The conditions for reconciliation between the parties are improved The duration of the peace-promoting mission is reduced The cost of the peace-promoting mission is reduced
This leads to the conclusion that measures should be taken on both the international and national levels to facilitate the more rapid establishment of multinational police forces.
Measures within UN
A good and comprehensive planning of new peace—promoting activities is very important for the rapid establishment of an international police force in a conflict area. In general, police observers act in a conflict situation together with both military and other civil parts of a peace-promoting mission. In the early planning process, the focus is usually directed towards military needs and requirements, and this reduces the possibility of creating favourable conditions for the police force. In the planning, increased consideration should therefore be given to police viewpoints and requirements. An important task for police officers who participate in reconnaissance and preparations for an international police force should be to map out the structure of the local judicial system, especially the organization of the police system, and the local laws. A knowledge of this is important if good and realistic work tasks are to be forrnulated in mandates and other documents. It is also important for how the international police force is to be composed and organized and for how the police-contributing countries should plan the mission-directed training.
The missions are led more and more often by a Special Representative appointed by the Secretary-General. Directly subordinate to him is the military chief, the Force Commander, the chief of the police force, the Police Commissioner, and possibly other parts of the mission. The largest and therefore dominating component in a mission usually consists of the military force under the command of the Force Commander. A military headquarters has a fixed organization which is similar in most countries. The different units have the same names and the chains of command are clear. A model for a military UN-headquarters thus also exists. Similar conditions do not exist for the police. When an international police force is established, a police headquarters must therefore be created. This must work parallel with the military headquarters and cooperate with this in many respects. It is therefore appropriate that the police headquarters be given a structure corresponding to that of the military headquarters.
It is important that there are previously selected and prepared personnel who can man key positions in the police headquarters. Examples of such posts are Police Commissioner, chief of staff, operations leader and maintenance chief. By selecting candidates in advance for these posts, persons can be given staff and leadership education. They can be recruited among those who work at the UN-headquarters and there have positions which need not be manned when a mission is undertaken. The unit for experience recovery is a unit where such posts can be found.
Access to the right equipment in an early phase of a mission increases the efficiency and creates confidence in UN. UN shall supply all joint equipment for the police force, e.g. vehicles, means of communication and buildings. The police-contributing countries are expected to contribute only the personal equipment of the police officers. For the running maintenance in the form of fuel and communication equipment, the police officers are obliged to use e.g. the maintenance resources of the military force. It is important that this is taken into consideration when the military maintenance capacity is calculated. The equipment which UN uses in police missions should be standardized and user-friendly. This makes it possible to educate in advance and under realistic active—service conditions. In order to achieve a greater effect in the action, however, even more advanced equipment should be available to pennit rapid communication. The form of information transmission practised by EU's monitors in Bosnia-Herzegovina (ECMM) with the help of portable computers and telephones should also be available within a police force in a UN—mission.
The possibilities for UN rapidly to make the correctly adapted equipment available has varied in different missions. Delayed deliveries have caused problems for the police activity to function at an early stage. One reason for this is often that the budget of & UN-force is determined by the General Assembly several months after the Security Council has decided to establish the force. Sweden should together with other troop— and police—contributing countries act so that the budget for the UN-forces is determined more rapidly and is compiled so that a police department is given the same opportunities as a military force in the same mission.
To achieve the intended effect, certain types of conflict require that many police observers are rapidly available. It is important that the police officers placed at UN' disposal have a good training, the experience necessary for the task and in other respects meet the requirements of the mission, not least regarding knowledge in languages. To make this possible, Sweden should act so that the member countries undertake national preparations so that they can rapidly make police officers available.
The number of UN-missions which have included police departments is now so large that it is possible to learn general lessons from the experience gained. UN should study and use these lessons not least when a new mission is being established. As an example of experience gained about deficiencies which are now being corrected, can be mentioned the low administrative alert. The documents which control the administrative routines and code of behaviour of a police force (Standard Adnrinistrational Procedures and
Code of Conduct) have been prepared from case to case which has made the work more difficult. Attempts are now being made to standardize these documents. Sweden should act to develop further this type of experience recovery.
There are a few persons in different countries who have a documented experience of leading international police forces. UN should draw up a register over these in order to make rapid recruitment possible when a new mission is to be established.
Measures in Sweden
Certain measures have already been taken to improve Sweden's possibilities of participating in peace-promoting activities in a wide sense. Thus, a systern is available at the National Rescue Service Board which makes action possible at short notice. The system includes mobilization of personnel, equipment and logistics. The Swedish Parliament has further decided that within the Swedish Military Command a system shall be established which permits the rapid deployment of military units for international missions. The development during the 19905 has shown that police observers and police advisers for peace-promoting activities are needed to an increasing extent. There is therefore good reason to establish a system also within the police force which makes it possible for Swedish police officers to be deployed rapidly. At present, it takes about ten weeks to recruit and train a Swedish police contingent for a new mission. The process includes application, grading, selection, planning of training, training and equipment. In the case of smaller missions, the process can in certain cases be shortened by making direct contact with police officers with earlier experience.
The Committee proposes that the Government should give the National Police Board the task of initiating a trial activity which makes it possible at short notice to make Swedish police officers available for an international police force for peace—promoting purposes. The trial activity should include 20 police officers who are contracted by the National Police Board to participate in the trial for 12 months. The police officers contracted should have undergone UNPOC (United Nations Police Officers Course) and should have completed at least six months' foreign service during the last five years. Decisions about foreign service for the contracted person should be made by the Government. Those who are contracted should receive continuous information from the National Police Board about developments in possible conflict areas. The contract should include as follows:
0 the obligation to report to SWEDINT (Swedish Armed Forces International Centre) at one week's notice to undergo a mission-directed training and to be prepared to serve abroad within a further week.
' the obligation to provide information about residence and current telephone number to the National Police Board if the home or place of work is left for more than 48 hours.
For this, remuneration should be given as follows:
' A fixed sum per calendar month, one third of which is paid together with the ordinary monthly salary. The remaining two thirds are paid only if the Government decides on foreign service. In that case, retroactive payment of the sum earned is made.
The payment to those who are included in this force shall be a compensation for e.g. the following sacrifices:
' the discomfort of not being able to take a holiday or other vacation for a long trip that would mean that one is not always available
. the uncertainty which arises for the private person and his/her family in the planning of their private life
0 possible difficulties at the ordinary place of work because one is not entrusted with more important tasks
The Committee considers that the level of compensation should be decided after the Committee on Survey of the Rules for the Swedish Military Command's peace-promoting activities abroad (dir. Fö 1997121) has presented its report. It is important that the benefits for police and military personnel in similar peace-promoting service are calculated according to the same procedures. This also applies to those who pledge themselves to be part of a system which facilitates rapid actions.
Tested and stored equipment should be available for those who are under contract. The system for rapid actions should be designed so that financing via the Swedish development aid budget is possible.
The Swedish Delegation to the UN in New York should be reinforced with a police adviser with the aim of looking after police matters and to maintain contact with the Civpol Unit and other parts of DPKO. Such a
reinforcement would increase Sweden's possibility of attracting attention for the Swedish viewpoint in the establishment and operation of police activities in peace-promoting missions. This is especially important during the period when Sweden is a member of the Security Council.
2.12. The National Police Board assumes responsibility
The Conrrnittee proposes that the National Police Board shall have a total responsibility for all Swedish police officers in peace-promoting service. The National Police Board should take over the state's employer responsibility and be responsible also for these police officers. A Foreign Force for the Police Force should be established, the conditions of employment for which are similar to those which apply to personnel in the foreign force within the Swedish Military Command.
Considerations Reasons for change
When the responsibility for police in peace—promoting activity is considered, it is suitable to start from the tasks which the police officers will perform.
The Swedish Military Command's responsibility for the police in peace— promoting service today includes not only their time abroad but also the educational period in Sweden and the debriefing conversations which are carried out after the period of service. This means that the National Police Board has no formal, Statute-controlled responsibility whatsoever for these police officers. The responsibility for psycho-social measures after the homecoming rests with the home-authority of the individual police officer. For peace—promoting service, Sweden recruits only police officers active in the national police service. Those who are of interest are of such an age that they are expected to return to Swedish service after their period of foreign service. They are recruited because they have a special professional knowledge and common basic police education based on the standards and values which are characteristic of Swedish public life. Since the employer
responsibility for Swedish police officers is now divided depending on whether they serve in Sweden or abroad, motives (and resources) are lacking both within the police system and the Swedish Military Command to take a real concentrated hold on this activity. The police activity in peace- promoting service is today not given the attention which it deserves. Neither the National Police Board nor the Swedish Military Command have to a sufficient extent followed the international debate or participated in the doctrine development within the field. Nor has it been possible to handle the experiences gained in a systematic way.
It is further a weakness that the ordinary employer has no formal responsibility for the police officers during their foreign service in spite of the fact that police in foreign service represent not only the international organization concerned but also the total Swedish police corps. Experiences and knowledge which might be useful and valuable for the continued service of the civil policeman on his return to Sweden are not systematically added to the police organization either. The possibilities of observing the merits of foreign service in a promotion context are also made more difficult. Finally, staff welfare aspects related to experiences in foreign service are interrupted under the present system.
The tasks of the police in peace-promoting activities are in most missions to monitor the local police or to assist the local police. These tasks are carried out within the framework of the judicial system of the host country. In such cases, the police officers are placed under the command of a police comrnissioner appointed by UN who is subordinate to the representative of the Secretary-General at the location. In these cases, the police officers are not included in a Swedish military force. There is thus no Swedish constitutional requirement that the police officers shall be employed in the Foreign Force of the Swedish Military. Instead, the employment should take place within a Foreign Force established within the Police Force.
The meaning of the proposal
In certain cases, an international police force can, without being included in a military force and without being under the orders of any military command, be given certain executive tasks. These can e.g. be to protect the civil population or aid workers or to prevent plundering etc. Intervention by the police and any necessary violence to solve the task in question in such a situation must be derived from a mandate based on chapter VI or VII of the UN Charter. Ultimately, the decision-making for each measure taken must be derived in a command chain. Police officers under such command
conditions can further be given the task of acting to create security and order by a proactive behaviour. When police officers serve abroad under such conditions, a requirement should be made for the same adjustment of their position in Swedish law as applies to the military personnel. The Committee estimates that police officers who act under such conditions should also be employed in the Foreign Force of the Police Force. Employment in the Foreign Force of the Police Force should therefore involve certain legal consequences, e.g. that Sweden shall have unrestricted penal jurisdiction regarding crimes conunitted by such personnel (chapter 2 section 3.3 of the Swedish Penal Code). Provisions concerning disciplinary responsibility etc. can be necessary in accordance with what is shown more closely earlier. However, it falls outside the framework of this inquiry to propose the changes necessary. When police officers hold posts as police advisers or police instructors in a Swedish military unit, they constitute a part of the Swedish armed force. To meet the requirements of the Constitution and of what is regulated in section 2 of the Armed Forces Act, they should thus be employed in the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military Command. Also in cases when police officers in other forms constitute a part of a Swedish military contribution in peace-promoting activities, the employment should be with the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military Command. In pure aid contributions, another form of employment should be considered than within the Foreign Force of the Police Force.
The Committee proposes that the National Police Board shall have the total responsibility for Swedish police in peace—promoting service. The proposal means that a Foreign Force of the Police Force is established by amending the instructions of the National Police Board. As a consequence, an amendment is proposed to the Ordinance (19841309) about the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military Command so that the provisions concerning the civilian police department in section 3 of the Ordinance are removed. The responsibility for Swedish police officers in international peace—promoting service is thereby transferred to the National Police Board. This means the responsibility for the recruiting, training, maintenance and staff welfare of the Swedish police officers who participate in peace- promoting activities. The National Police Board should also be given the responsibility of actively following the methodological and doctrinal development within the field. The proposal means that the Government may need to take the initiative to introduce amendments of the type recently indicated and to the Ordinance accounted for below.
The employment conditions for the Foreign Force of the Police Force should be the same as those for the personnel in the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military Command. The benefits should be determined in an ordinance. In each individual mission, an estimate should be made as to whether the employment shall take place within the Foreign Force of the Police Force or in another form. If the police officers are to serve as police observers or police advisers in a police department led by a Police Commissioner and who acts in the same area as a military peace—promoting force, employment in the Foreign Force of the Police Force is suitable. If the service has the characteristics of an aid contribution, e.g. as a teacher at a national police school or as a member of an international tribunal, the employment should take place in the same way as before with the National Police Board as employer with financing from SIDA. The proposal does not influence the possibility of recruiting police officers for service at military posts in the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military Command. In such cases, the police officers shall be given leave of absence from the Police Force and shall have the Swedish Military Command as employer.
Special attention should be directed towards the tasks which the police officers are to carry out in the conflict area. If they are to be placed under military command and armed in any way other than for self—defence, employment can take place only in the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military Command. This should not occur often.
The Committee considers it essential that the responsibility of the National Police Board also includes the systematic and long-term work within the field of police in peace-promoting service. Methodological and doctrinal development should, along with a regular follow—up, be subjected to continual attention.
The Committee's proposal for a change in responsibility need not in itself mean any cost increase. The proposed increase in ambition regarding in particular methodological and doctrinal development means extra costs which must, however, be financed. This should largely be achieved through a coordination and rationalization of all the international activity within the National Police Board.
Today, the responsibility for international police questions within the National Police Board is divided into different units. As shown earlier, International and national organization for police work, such matters are handled at three different units within the National Police Board; the International Secretariat, the National Criminal Police and the Police
Academy. The National Criminal Police has the operative responsibility for international police activity and has for several years dealt with matters concerning police officers in peacekeeping service. To increase efficiency, it is desirable that the National Police Board gathers the overall responsibility for police in peace—promoting activities into a single unit.
As shown previously, the Committee proposes that a system is established within the Police Force which permits more rapid actions involving police officers than is at present possible. It appears technically and practically difficult to handle if those who are affected by this systern are contracted, budgeted and otherwise administered by any other principal than the National Police Board. In the same way, it appears to be both administratively and in principle unsuitable if those who are included in the rapid—deployment system have a different employer than those who serve abroad.
It is important to retain the benefits of the present system
There are however certain Obvious advantages with the system which applies in Sweden today. The co-operation between the administrators concerned at the National Police Board and the Swedish Military Command in these questions functions well according to concordant testimonials. There are well developed routines and a good personnel knowledge among teachers and administrators. The training in the form of UNPOC, the mission- directed training and the home- c—oming debriefings are carried out by the Swedish Military Command and In the same place as the military troop. This means that the local knowledge and experience available within the Swedish Military Command to act within a certain conflict area is utilized. In a UN mission, in particular in the headquarters of the civilian police department, there is close and frequent cooperation with the military headquarters. In certain missions, e.g. in UNAVEM III in Angola, there was a close co—operation in the field. Similar training is therefore desirable. It should be observed that the training of police officers and military personnel does not however take place simultaneously at the Swedish Military Command. No contacts of importance for the future are therefore
' (Military observers are trained at a three-week long joint Nordic course in Finland and spend only a short period at SWEDINT).
established at the student—level. This reduces somewhat the importance of the civil police training taking place at SWEDINT. Only the few police officers which are educated at the staff course UNSOC (UN Staff Officers Course) or at UNMAS (Nordic UN Peace-Keeping Mission Management Seminar) have military course comrades.
Since the police officers are included in the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military Command, they are automatically subjected to several other laws and regulations, e.g. the Ordinance (FFS 1984z3l) regarding benefits to an employed person in the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military Command, and the Act (1994:18ll) regarding disciplinary responsibility within the total defence etc. The police officers are also awarded the Swedish Military Command's medal for international service. This guarantees that personnel who serve in the same region and under similar external conditions, as a rule within the same mission, also have the same Swedish employment conditions. This reduces the risk that different Swedish personnel categories in a conflict area will feel that there are "injustices" between different groups.
The joint responsibility for military and police components facilitates the possibility of using the Swedish Military Command's transport resources for e.g. service and leave trips. The joint storage of uniforms and other materials provides coordination benefits for the national administration. Through SWEDINT, the Swedish Military Command has an organization which is specially adapted to international service and has the resources required to meet rapid and unexpected new tasks. For the running operation of the forces located abroad, there is similarly great experience and high competence within the Swedish Military Command. Cashier services, salary routines and contacts with UN and other international organizations are facilitated by the fact that there is one responsible authority in Sweden. Since the home country has no right to give operative instructions during the foreign service, it is not decisive whether or not there is police competence at the employment authority in Sweden.
The Committee considers it very important that a change in responsibility aims at assimilating the advantages of the change without losing the advantages of the present system. Several international reporters have considered that the close cooperation which exists in Sweden between military and police activity in peace—promoting service is good. Training, equipment and exercise should therefore also take place at SWEDINT in the future. The good collaboration which already exists between the two authorities should be developed and deepened.
This can take place if the Foreign Force of the Police Force mainly carries out its activity at SWEDINT. An agreement is probably required between the Swedish Military Command and the National Police Board to govem the details of this collaboration. It is very important that the applicable rules valid for the Foreign Force within the Swedish Military Command, and which are described more closely in chapter 8, also apply to the Foreign Force of the Police Force.
2.13. Training and recruiting
The Committee proposes that elements concerning peace-promoting service are introduced into the basic Swedish police training. Recruitment of police officers to the Foreign Force of the Police Force should take place more actively than has so far been the case. Special attention should be directed towards those counties which from experience have a low proportion of police officers in foreign service. The importance of female police officers should be observed.
The present structure with UNPOC and a later mission-directed training should be maintained and complemented in certain respects. The need for integration with military units should be given increased attention.
When the Foreign Force of the Police Force is established, the National Police Board should consult with the Co—ordinator of Training for International Missions who has been appointed in accordance with the Government's decision on the Defence of 1996.
Considerations The Committee establishes that Sweden has an intemationally good reputation as a police-contributing nation. A strong contributing reason for this is that Swedish police officers have undergone training which has made them both mentally prepared and trained to act in a foreign environment.
In order to create an understanding for police officers as a conflict-solving instrument already at an early stage of the professional career, and thereby initiate an interest in international activities, information should be given in the basic police training about the possibility of participating in a peace- promoting mission later in one's career. This can take place in the form of a study visit to SWEDINT during the police training or by employing police officers with international experience as lecturers during the basic training at the Police Academy.
It is important that the circle of police officers who apply for foreign service is made as large as possible. This increases the selection possibilities and the quality. A simple comparison of the county-affiliation of the police officers who served abroad during the spring of 1997 shows that several counties are not represented. According to information from experienced police officers, this is a common situation. The Committee considers it important that special measures are taken to expand the recruitment base. In the recruiting to each mission, the role which female police officers can play in creating confidence in relation to the civil population shall further be given special consideration. In the training of police officers — women and men - for peace—promoting activities, special training should therefore be given in the handling of traumatized women who have been exposed to or have witnessed acts of violence.
Knowledge about the meaning of human rights and basic police knowledge are of a relatively permanent character whereas the knowledge about ongoing missions needs to be updated continuously. It is therefore very important that teachers and instructors at UNPOC and the mission-directed training are continuously given the possibility of updating their knowledge. Also in the future, recruiting should take place among those who have personal experience from service abroad. Teachers and instructors should be connected to the National Police Board in a more solid way than before, perhaps for a period of three years, to motivate them to keep their knowledge updated. The National Police Board should have continuous contact with the teachers and should supply adequate information. The system should be arranged so that not all teachers are exchanged at the same time. For the Swedish viewpoint to be credible in the international debate on police questions, a number of confidence—inspiring persons who work with them is required; a sufficient number of voices must be heard in public for the Swedish opinions to be credible. Not least, it is important that teachers and instructors communicate their experiences to the world around. This is also facilitated if the teachers are more firmly connected to the foreign force of the Police force than is so at present.
UNPOC is suitable in its length and extent. The course content should be general and should be continually updated. UNPOC should also in the future be located at SWEDINT. This should be in co-operation with the Co— ordinator of Training for International Missions who has been appointed as a result of the latest Governmental decision on the Defence.
The mission—directed training should be extended to a week and should be directed mainly towards the judicial conditions in the mission country. Knowledge of the local police force and the legal system should be given a prominent place.
In new recruiting of personnel to already ongoing missions, the need for knowledge of the national language should be observed. Possibilities should be given to those who have been selected to carry out studies in relevant languages through language courses for individual studies made available by the Foreign Force of the Police Force. The same condition should apply to the mission language. This is especially important when the mission language is not English. It is not reasonable to train police officers in "odd" languages for possible future work.
The need for managerial training in the form of e.g. staff training should be observed to a greater extent. More police officers should undergo integrated training such as UNSOC and UNMAS.
In section 2.10, More efficient police activities within UN, viewpoints are given on training on arrival at the mission area. Sweden should further act so that within UN and other performance—organizations, budgeting should always ensure that resources are continuously available for training in an ongoing mission. This training should in the first place be aimed at providing a complementary knowledge within different fields where a need has been found to exist during the progress of the mission.
Sweden should in the future also encourage police—contributing countries to offer each other places in national training courses for peace-promoting police activities. The aim should be to encourage other countries to provide similar education.
It is natural that the National Police Board actively collaborates with the Swedish Military Command in the introduction of the Foreign Force of the Police Force. Co-operation should also take place with the Co-ordinator of Training for International Mission.
The Committee proposes that funds for administration in Sweden of the Foreign Force of the Police Force should be budgeted within the National Police Board's administration appropriation as a special item. The item should be dimensioned so that at least those funds which are today allocated by the National Criminal Police, the Police Academy and the Swedish Military Command for recruiting, training, administration and follow-up are transferred to the Foreign Force of the Police Force item, which should be administered by the National Police Board.
The funds budgeted for UNPOC and for other aid activities to be carried out by police officers should be placed at the disposal of the National Police Board in a so-called regulation letter.
The operational costs for the activity abroad should even in the future be kept separate from the costs in Sweden.
The present division of the operational costs into different items depending on the aim of the work is appropriate and should be maintained.
The Government should in future budgets observe that the international demand for police officers is expected to increase. In relevant appropriations, funds should be allocated to permit an involvement on at least the level proposed in this inquiry.
A collected responsibility for international police matters means that the economic responsibility must be transferred to the National Police Board. This means e.g. a responsibility to prepare the annual budget and annual accounts and to calculate costs in connection with the start of a new mission or the extension of an ongoing mission. It is important that it is the Government which determines the volume of the activity. It should therefore
be budgeted as its own item to prevent the funds from being reduced in connection with e.g. new priorities in other fields within the activities of the National Police Board. Here, those proposals of the Committee which are important in a budget context are commented on.
Responsibility and method development
The proposal for a change in responsibility is estimated to be neutral regarding costs to the state. Certain one-time costs in connection with the reform can however arise. The exact size of the sums to be transferred to the Foreign Force of the Police Force from the Swedish Military Command, the National Police Board and the Police Academy must be calculated before the coming budget work. The Committee's proposal for greater attention to the field of methodological and doctrinal development means an increase in ambition which leads to greater costs than in the present situation. The Committee estimates that the resources needed for this purpose can amount to work for approx. one person during one year.
Increased awareness of police tasks in peace-promoting military units
The Committee proposes that the Government shall commission the Swedish Military Command and the National Police Board to investigate more closely the conditions for an increased awareness of military peace- promoting units for solving certain police tasks. The task should also include an estimate of the economic consequences of e.g. an extended training period.
The extent of the Swedish participation
The proposal for a Swedish readiness to make available 125 police officers permanently or 150 police officers temporarily must, to be feasible and credible, correspond to a budgetary preparedness within the appropriations concerned. A higher long-term ambition level also means higher costs at the National Police Board for administration and training. The average Swedish operational cost for 125 police officers in UN-service is calculated to be ca SEK 75 million with an annual average cost of SEK 0.6 million per police officer. The cost for those police officers who do not receive MSA (Mission Subsistence Allowance) from UN is in general higher than for those who have MSA. The budgetary preparedness should be such that it also permits participation in those countries where the costs exceed the average. The Committee establishes that the police activities abroad are of different characters and are included in missions with
different mandates. Some contributions are of an aid character whilst others can be regarded as parts of a traditional peace—keeping contribution in close collaboration with military components. To be able still to meet new demands with rapidity and flexibility, possibilities should exist within the Swedish state budget to use funds from several appropriations. The two appropriations used at present are well suited for the purpose. When the budget is established for a new mission, or the police contribution is reinforced in ongoing missions, it should be noted that an increase also means increased costs for administration and training in Sweden. These costs should also, while awaiting a coming budget, be included in the operational costs for the new or extended mission. The Committee considers that the National Police Board should administer the funds used for the operational costs of the personnel stationed abroad.
System for higher awareness of international work
The costs for a system which makes it possible rapidly to recruit personnel are independent of e.g. the number of persons included, the length of the contract period and the mobilization time. In a previous section, examples have been given of factors which are important when the payment level is calculated. In the same section, reasons are given for why the Committee refrains from making any proposal about the payment level.
Police advisers at the Swedish representation in New York
The annual cost for a police adviser at the UN Delegation in New York is estimated to amount to nearly SEK one million. This personnel reinforcement is a possibility for improving an activity which is largely of an aid character and should therefore be financed with funds from the Swedish development aid grants.
Extended mission-directed training
The mission-directed training is today financed by funds assigned in a regulation letter or separate Government decision for the operation cost of each action. The Committee's proposal means that the cost for each mission increases with a sum which corresponds to three further service days in Sweden per police officer. This should be observed in the preparation of future budgets.