SOU 1974:69

Invandrarutredningen

Till Statsrådet Anna-Greta Leijon

Invandrarutredningen — som tidigare har avgett ett delbetänkande med förslag om bl. a. grundutbildning i svenska för invandrare (SOU 1971 :51) och ett delbetänkande om offentlig tolkservice (SOU 1972:83) — får härmed överlämna sitt huvudbetänkande jämte en separat bilagedel. Utredningens arbete är härmed slutfört.

Reservation har avgivits av ledamoten Diesen.

Stockholm den 3 september 1974

Bertil Olsson

Hugo Bengtsson Ove Jönsson

Ingrid Diesen Lennart Mattsson

Bengt Fagerlund Rolf; Wirtén

/Jonas Widgren

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Innehåll Förkortningar ................................... 17 Sammanfattning ................................. 19 Summary in English ............................... 23 Förutsättningar Kapitel 1 IU:s arbete .............................. 33 1.1 Direktiven ................... ' .............. 33 1,2 Beslut i övrigt om uppdraget ..................... 34 1.3 [U:s sammansättning .......................... 35 1.4 les verksamhet .............................. 36 1.5 Uppläggningen av betänkandet .................... 39 Kapitel 2 Invandringen ............................ 43 2.1 Invandrar- och minoritetsfrågornas behandling i Sverige under efterkrigstiden ............................... 43 2.2 Invandringen till Sverige — statistisk översikt ........... 50 2.2.1 Inledning och terminologi .................. 50 2.2.2 Folkutbytet med främmande länder ........... 51 Fördelning på länder ..................... 54 Invandrarnas köns- och åldersmässiga sammansätt- ning ................................ 56 Återutvandringen ....................... 57 2.2.3 Utlänningar och utrikes födda i Sverige ......... 59 Antal ............................... 59 Felaktigheter i utlänningsstatistiken ........... 61 Fördelning på länder ..................... 62 Ålder ............................... 62 Kön— och civilståndssammansättning ........... 64 Regional fördelning ...................... 65 2.2.4 lnvandringens demografiska effekter ........... 68 2.2.5 Den framtida invandringen ................. 70 2.3 Migrationen i Europa .......................... 71 2.3.1 En översikt ............................ 71 2.3.2 Aktuella utvandringsländer ................. 79

2.4 Internationella normer för behandlingen av invandrare . . . . 86

Kapitel 3 Målen ................................. 93 3.1 Inledning .................................. 93 3.2 Målen .................................... 94 3.3 Konsekvenserna .............................. 96

Förslag

Kapitel 4 Arbetsmarknadsfrågor ...................... 99 4.1 Statistisk översikt ............................ 99

4.1.1 Tillgänglig statistik ....................... 99 4.1.2 Antal utlänningar arbetsmarknaden .......... 99 4.1.3 Invandrarnas yrkesfördelning m. m. ........... 101 4.1.4 Arbetslösheten bland invandrarna ............. 106 4.2 Aktuella frågor .............................. 107 4.2.1 Arbete före inresa ........................ 107 4.2.2 Utlännings rättsställning arbetsmarknaden ..... 110 4.2.3 Introduktions— och utbildningsåtgärder ......... 111 4.2.4 De fackliga organisationerna och invandrarna ..... 1 13 4.31Uzsöverväganden ....................... 114

Kapitel 5 Bostadsfrågor ............................ 119 5.1 Statistisk översikt ............................ 119 5.2 Aktuella frågor .............................. 124

5.2.1 Bostad före inresa ....................... 124 5.2.2 Utlännings rättsställning bostadsmarknaden . . . . 125 5.2.3 Information ........................... 128 5.3IUzsöverväganden ....................... 129

Kapitel 6 Sociala frågor ............................ 131 6.1 Andra berörda statliga utredningar ................. 131 6.2 Socialförsäkringar m. m. ........................ 132

62.1 Internationella överenskommelser om social trygghet . 132 6.2.2 Förmåner vid sjukdom och föräldraskap ......... 134 6.2.3 Förmåner vid yrkesskada .................. 135 6.2.4 Förmåner vid arbetslöshet .................. 136 6.2.5 Familjestöd ........................... 139 6.2.6 Folkpension ........................... 140 6.2.7 Tilläggspension ......................... 144 6.2.8 IUzsöverväganden .................. 145 6.3 Socialhjälp m. m. ............................. 148 6.3.1 Regler för socialhjälp till utlänningar ........... 148 6.3.2 Hemsändningsinstitutet ................... 150 6.3.3 Socialhjälp i väntan arbetstillstånd .......... 151 6.3.4 Statistisk översikt ....................... 153 6.3.5 IUzsöverväganden .................. 158 6.4 Social service, vård och behandling ................. 161 6.4.1 Bama- och ungdomsvård ................... 161 6.4.2 Uppsökande verksamhet ................... 163

6.4.3 Social rådgivning ........................ 6.4.4 Social hemhjälp ......................... 6.4.5 Åldringsvård ........................... 6.4.6 Nykterhetsvård ......................... 6.4.7 IUzsöverväganden .................. 6.5 Hälso— och sjukvård ........................... 6.5.1 Invandrarnas hälsosituation ................. 6.5.2 Hälsoundersökningar ..................... 6.5.3 IUzsöverväganden .................. 6.6 Kriminalvård ................................ 6.6.1 Statistisk översikt ....................... 6.6.2 IUzsöverväganden .................. Kapitel 7 Kultur ................................. 7.1 En kulturpolitik för språkliga minoriteter ............. 7.1.1 Inledning ............................. 7.1.2 Andra berörda statliga utredningar ............ 7.1.3 Önskemål från invandrar— och minoritetsorganisa- tioner ...............................

7.1.4 IUzsöverväganden ..................

7.2 Kulturellt samarbete med invandrarnas ursprungsländer 7.2.1 Avtalsreglerat kulturutbyte ................. 7.2.2 Informations- och kulturverksamhet från Sverige . . . 7.2.3 Informations- och kulturverksamhet från utlandet i Sverige .............................. 7.2.4 IUzsöverväganden .................. 7.3 Kulturell service till de språkliga minoriteterna ......... 7.3.1 Invandrar— och minoritetsorganisationernas kultur- verksamhet ............................ 7.3.2 Litteraturförsörjningen .................... Litteraturförsörjningen genom det allmänna biblio- teksväsendet ........................... Litteraturutgivning och distribution ........... Litteratur i översättning ................... IUzsöverväganden .................. 7.3.3 Press— och tidskriftsfrågor .................. Tidningar och tidskrifter för språkliga minoriteter IUzsöverväganden .................. 7.3.4 Radio- och TV-sändningar .................. Internationell översikt .................... Finskspråkiga radio- och TV-sändningar i Sverige Finska radio- och TV-programs hör- och sebarhet i

Sverige .............................. Radio— och TV-sändningar för övriga språkgrupper i Sverige ..............................

[Utsöverväganden .................. 7.3.5 Teater, spelfilm och musik ................. Teaterverksamhet .......................

164 164 165

183 183 183

185 188 192 192 193

195 196 197

197 198

198 199 200 202 204 204 209 211 211 213

Spelfilmsutbud ......................... 220 Musik, körsång, folklore m. m. ............... 222 IUzsöverväganden .................. 225

Kapitel 8 Utbildning .............................. 229 8.1 Inledning .................................. 229 8.1.1 IU:s tidigare behandling av utbildningsfrågor ...... 229 8.1.2 Andra berörda statliga utredningar ............ 231 8.1.3 Statistiska uppgifter ...................... 232 8.1.4 Framförda önskemål ..................... 233

8.2 Internationell översikt ......................... 237 8.2.1 Invandrarbarnens utbildningssituation .......... 237 8.2.2 Internationella normer för utbildning för språkliga

minoriteter ............................ 238

8.3 Språkutveckling och tvåspråkighet ................. 240 8.4 Förskolan .................................. 242 8.4.1 Allmänt .............................. 242 8.4.2 Viss försöksverksamhet .................... 243 8.4.3 Utbildning av förskollärare ................. 246 8.4.4 IUzsöverväganden .................. 247 8.5 Grundskolan och gymnasieskolan .................. 248 8.5.1 Allmänt .............................. 248 Begreppet invandrarelev ................... 248 Frågor rörande skolplikten ................. 249 Samarbete mellan hem och skola ............. 250 8.5.2 Hemspråksundervisning ................... 250 Bestämmelser och anvisningar för undervisningen . . 250 Information om undervisningen .............. 252 Undervisningens omfattning ................ 252 Hemspråksundervisning utanför schematid ....... 253 Samarbete med invandrarnas ursprungsländer ..... 254 Särskilda minoritetsskolor .................. 255 IUzsöverväganden .................. 256 8.5.3 Stödundervisning och svenskinlärning .......... 259 Gällande bestämmelser .................... 259 Undervisningens organisation ................ 261 Undervisningens omfattning ................ 262 [U:söverväganden .................. 262 8.5.4 Lärare och läromedel ..................... 264 Antal lärare ........................... 264 Lärarutbildning ................... . ...... 266 Läromedel ............................ 268 IUzsöverväganden .................. 270 8.6 Viss övrig utbildning m. m. ...................... 271 8.6.1 Folkhögskolan ......................... 271 8.6.2 Högre utbildning och forskning i invandrarspråk . . . 272 8.6.3 IUzsöverväganden .................. 273

Kapitel 9 Föreningarna och trossamfunden ............... 275 9.1 Invandrarna i föreningslivet ...................... 275 9.1.1 Allmänt .............................. 275 9.1.2 IUzsöverväganden .................. 277

9.2 Invandrar- och minoritetsorganisationerna ............ 278 9.2.1 Beskrivning av organisationerna .............. 278 9.2.2 Organisationernas ekonomiska situation ......... 282 9.2.3 IUzsöverväganden .................. 287 9.3 Trossamfunden .............................. 297 9.3.1 Invandrarnas religionstillhörighet ............. 297 9.3.2 Nuvarande bidrag ....................... 302 9.3.3 IUzsöverväganden .................. 304 9.4 Särskild projektverksamhet ...................... 306 9.4.1 Nuvarande bidrag ....................... 306 9.4.2 IU'söverväganden .................. 308 Kapitel 10 Medinflytande och medborgarskap ............. 311 10.1 Utlännings rättsställning ........................ 311 10.1.1 Inledning ............................. 311 10.1.2 Utlännings fri- och rättigheter ............... 312 10.1.3 Begränsningar i rätten att inresa och vistas i Sverige . 315

10.1.4 Begränsningar i rätten att arbeta, driva näring eller på

annat sätt vara verksam i Sverige .............. 318 10.1.51Uzsöverväganden .................. 321 10.2 Medinflytandefrågor ........................... 323 10.2.1 Internationell översikt .................... 323 10.2.2 Politiskt och fackligt inflytande .............. 325 10.2.3 Kommunal rösträtt och valbarhet för invandrare . . . 327 10.24 IUzsöverväganden .................. 328 10.3 Förvärv av svenskt medborgarskap ................. 329 10.3.1 Internationell översikt .................... 329 10.3.2 Den svenska medborgarskapslagstiftningen ....... 333

Före år 1950 .......................... 333 Nu gällande lagstiftning ................... 335 Sätten för förvärv av svenskt medborgarskap ...... 338

10.3.3 Statistisk översikt ....................... 345 10.3.4 Reformkrav ........................... 349 10.3.5 IUzsöverväganden .................. 352 Kapitel 11 Information och opinionsbildning .............. 357 11.1 Inledning .................................. 357 11.2 Information till invandrare ...................... 358 1 1.2.1 Invandrarnas informationssituation ............ 358 11.2.2 IUzs intervjuundersökning .................. 360 11.2.3 Aktuella informationsinsatser ............... 364 SIV ................................. 364 Invandrartidningen ...................... 367 övrig statlig information till invandrare ......... 370

sou 1974:69 Primärkommunerna och landstingen ........... 371 Organisationerna ........................ 373 De svenska tidningarnas spalter på invandrarspråk . . 374 ”Automatisk” information till invandrare ....... 375 11.2.4 IUzsöverväganden .................. 376 1 1.3 Information till svenskar — opinionsbildning och attitydför- ändring ................................... 380 11.3.1 Aktuella insatser ........................ 381 11.3.2 Vissa undersökningar ..................... 383 11.3.3IUzsöverväganden .................. 385 Kapitel 12 Ansvarsfördelning och samordning ............. 389 12.1 Myndigheternas ansvarsfördelning för åtgärder för invandrare 389 12.1.1 Nuvarande ordning ...................... 389 12.1.2 IUzsöverväganden .................. 390 12.2 Statens invandrarverk (SIV) ...................... 394 12.2.1 Tidigare behandling av frågan om den centrala utlän- ningsmyndighetens organisation .............. 394 12.2.2 SIV:s nuvarande organisation ................ 396 12.2.3 Informationstjänstemännen och byrån för anpass- ningsfrågor ............................ 398 12.2.4 IUzsöverväganden .................. 402 12.3 Kommunernas verksamhet för invandrare ............. 408 12.3.1 Tidigare behandling av frågan ................ 408 12.3.2 Nuvarande insatser ....................... 411 IU:s kommunenkät ...................... 412 Referensgrupper och samverkansorgan .......... 413 Invandrarbyråer ....................... 415 SIV:s kommunprojekt .................... 420 12.3.3IUzsöverväganden .................. 421 12.4 Statistik, forskning och dokumentation .............. 430 12.4.1 Inledning ............................. 430 12.4.2 Statistik .............................. 431 Bakgrund ............................. 431 lesöverväganden .................. 432 12.4.3 Forskning ............................ 433 Bakgrund ............................. 433 [U:söverväganden .................. 434 12.4.4 Dokumentation och arkivfrågor .............. 434 Bakgrund ............................. 434 IUzsöverväganden .................. 435 Reservation .................................... 437 Bilaga A Kostnadsberäkningar ........................ 439 Bilaga B Förslag till statsbidragskungörelser ............... 445 Bilaga C IU:s direktiv ............................. 447

Bilaga 1—6 finns i en särskild bilagedel (SOU 1974270)

Contents Abbreviations ................................... 17 Summary in Swedish .............................. 19 Summary in English ............................... 23 Premises Chapter 1 The work of the Commission on Immigration ...... 33 1.1 Terms of reference ............................ 33 1.2 Other decisions concerning the Commissionls instructions . . 34 1.3 The members of the Commission .................. 35 1.4 The activities of the Commission .................. 36 1.5 Disposition of the report ........................ 39 Chapter 2 Immigration in Sweden ..................... 43 2.1 Immigration and minority affairs in Sweden during the post-war period .............................. 43 2.2 Immigration in Sweden — a statistical summary ......... 50 2.2.1 Terminology ........................... 50 2.2.2 Exchange of population with other countries ..... 51 Distribution between different countries ........ 54 The sex and age structure of immigrants ........ 56 Re-emigration .......................... 57 2.2.3 Foreign nationals and persons born abroad living in Sweden .............................. 59 Numbers ............................. 59 Statistical errors ........................ 61 Distribution between different countries ........ 62 Age ................................. 62 Distribution by sex and marital status .......... 64 Regional distribution ..................... 65 2.2.4 The demographic effects of immigration ........ 68 2.2.5 The future immigration to Sweden ............ 70 2.3 Migration in Europe ........................... 71 2.3.1 A survey ............................. 71 2.3.2 Sending countries ..................... . 79

2.4 International norms for the treatment of immigrants ..... 86

Chapter 3 The goals .............................. 93 3.1 Introduction ................................ 93 3.2 The goals .................................. 94 3.3 The consequences ............................ 96

Proposals

Chapter 4 The labour market ........................ 99

4.1 Statistical survey ............................. 99

4.1.1 Statistics available ....................... 99 4.1.2 Number of aliens in the labour market .......... 99 4.1.3 Occupational status etc. ................... 101

4.1.4 Unemployment among immigrants ............ 106 4.2 Current issues ............................... 107 4.2.1 Forms of labour immigration ................ 107 4.2.2 The legal status of aliens in the labour market ..... 1 10 4.2.3 Introduction and training measures ............ 1 11 4.2.4 The trade unions and immigrants ............. 1 13 4.3 Proposals by the Commission ..................... 114 Chapter 5 Housing ............................... 119 5.1 Statistical survey ............................. 119 5.2 Current issues ............................... 124 5.2.1 Housing before entry ..................... 124 5.2.2 The legal status of immigrants in the housing market . 125

5.2.3 Information measures ..................... 128 5.3 Proposals by the Commission ..................... 129 Chapter 6 Social affairs ............................ 131 6.1 Other Commissions concerned .................... 131 6.2 Social insurance etc. ........................... 132 6.2.1 International agreements on social security ....... 132 6.2.2 Benefits in connection with sickness and childbirth 134 6.2.3 Benefits in connection with industrial injuries ..... 135 6.2.4 Benefits in connection with unemployment ...... 136 6.2.5 Support for families ...................... 139 6.2.6 Basic retirement pension ................... 140 6.2.7 Supplementary retirement pension ............ 144 6.2.8 Proposals by the Commission ................ 145 6.3 Social assistance ............................. 148 6.3.1 Rules governing social assistance to aliens ....... 148 6.3.2 Repatriation on social grounds ............... 150 6.3.3 Social assistance pending the award of work permits . 151 6.3.4 Statistical survey ........................ 153 6.3.5 Proposals by the Commission ................ 158 6.4 Social services etc. ............................ 161 6.4.1 Child and youth welfare ................... 161 6.4.2 Contact work in the field ................... 163 6.4.3 Guidance ............................. 164

6.4.4 Social domestic assistance .................. 164 6.4.5 Care of the aged ........................ 165 6.4.6 Care of alcoholics ....................... 165 6.4.7 Proposals by the Commission ................ 167 6.5 Health and medical services ....................... 169 6.51 The health situation of immigrants ............ 169 6.5.2 Health checks .......................... 171 6.5.3 Proposals by the Commission ................ 175 6.6 Criminality ................................. 178 6.6.1 Statistical survey ........................ 178 6.6.2 Proposals by the Commission ................ 180 Chapter 7 Culture ................................ 183 7.1 A cultural policy for linguistic minorities ............. 183 7.1.1 Introduction ........................... 183 ' 7.1.2 Other Commissions concerned ............... 184 7.1.3 Desiderata from immigrant and minority associations 185 7.1.4 Proposals by the Commission ................ 188 7.2 Co-operation in the cultural field with the countries of origin . 192 7.2.1 Cultural co-operation covered by international agree-

ments ............................... 192

7.2.2 Swedish cultural information abroad ........... 193 7.2.3 Information and cultural activities in Sweden from

abroad ............................... 19 5

7.2.4 Proposals by the Commission ................ 196 7.3 Cultural amenities for linguistic minorities ............ 197 7.3.1 The cultural activities of immigrant and minority

associations ........................... 197

7.3.2 The supply of literature for linguistic minorities . . . 198 The supply of literature through the public library system ............................... 198 The publication and distribution of literature ..... 199 Literature in translation ................... 200

Proposals by the Commission ................ 202

7.3.3 The ethnic press ........................ 204 Newspapers and periodicals for linguistic minorities . 204 Proposals by the Commission ................ 209 7.3.4 Radio and television for linguistic minorities ...... 211

International survey ...................... 211 Radio and television broadcasts in Finnish ....... 213 Technical co-operation between Finland and Sweden . 214 Radio and television broadcasts in other languages . 215 Proposals by the Commission ................ 216 7.3.5 Drama, film and music .................... 217 Drama and the theatrical arts ................ 217 Film ................................ 220 Music, folklore etc. ...................... 222 Proposals by the Commission ................ 225

Chapter 8 Education .............................. 229 8.1 Introduction ................................ 229 8.1.1 Previous consideration by the Commission of matters

concerning education for immigrants ........... 229

8.1.2 Other Commissions concerned ............... 231 8.1.3 Statistical survey ........................ 232 8.1.4 Desiderata from immigrant, minority and teachers,

associations ........................... 233

8.2 International survey ........................... 237

8.2.1 The educational situation of immigrant children . . . 237 8.2.2 International norms for the education of linguistic

minorities ............................ 238

8.3 Research on bilingualism ........................ 240 8.4 Nursery school .............................. 242 8.4.1 General .............................. 242 8.4.2 Current experiments ..................... 243 8.4.3 Training of pre-school teachers ............... 246 8.4.4 Proposals by the Commission ................ 247 8.5 Comprehensive school and upper secondary school ...... 248 8.5.1 General .............................. 248

Definition of an immigrant pupil .............. 248 School attendance ....................... 249 Co-operation between home and school ......... 250

8.5.2 Native language instruction ................. 250

Current regulations ...................... 250 Information on native language instruction ....... 252 The scope of native language instruction ........ 252

Native language instruction outside the schedule . . . 253 Co-operation with the countries of origin ........ 254 Minority schools ........................ 255 Proposals by the Commission ................ 256

8.5.3 Auxiliary tuition and learning Swedish .......... 259

Current regulations ...................... 259 The organization of the instruction ............ 261 The scope of the instruction ................ 262 Proposals by the Commission ................ 262

8.5.4 Teachers and teaching materials .............. 264

Numbers of teachers ..................... 264 Teacher training ........................ 266 Teaching materials ....................... 268 Proposals by the Commission ................ 270

8.6 Other forms of education ....................... 271 8.6.1 Folk high schools ....................... 271 8.6.2 The position of minority languages at the universities 272 8.6.3 Proposals by the Commission ................ 273

Chapter 9 Associations and denominations ............... 275

9.1 Immigrants as members of clubs and associations ........ 275

9.1.1 General .............................. 275 9.1.2 Proposals by the Commission ................ 277 9.2 Immigrant and minority associations ................ 278 9.2.1 Description of associations ................. 278 9.2.2 The financial state of the associations .......... 282 9.2.3 Proposals by the Commission ................ 287 9.3 Denominations .............................. 297 9.3.1 Religious affiliation of immigrants ............ 297 9.3.2 Existing grants ......................... 302 9.3.3 Proposals by the Commission ................ 304 9.4 Special project activities ........................ 306 9.4.1 Existing grants ......................... 306 9.4.2 Proposals by the Commission ................ 308 Chapter 10 Political influence and citizenship ............. 311 10.1 The legal status of aliens ........................ 311 1011 Introduction ............................ 311 10.1.2 The rights and liberties of aliens .............. 312 10.1.3 The right to enter and reside in Sweden ......... 315 10.1.4 The right to work in Sweden ................ 318 10.1.5 Proposals by the Commission ................ 321 10.2 Political influence of immigrants ................... 323 10.2.1 International survey ...................... 323 10.2.2 Political and trade union influence ............ 325 10.2.3 Immigrant franchise and eligibility for municipal elec- tions ................................. 327 10.2.4 Proposals by the Commission ................ 328 10.3 Acquisition of Swedish citizenship ................. 329 10.3.1 International survey ...................... 329 10.3.2 Swedish legislation concerning citizenship ....... 333 Before 1950 ........................... 333 Current legislation ....................... 335 Ways of acquiring Swedish citizenship .......... 338 10.3.3 Statistical survey ........................ 345 10.3.4 Desiderata ............................ 349 10.3.5 Proposals by the Commission ................ 352 Chapter 1 1 Information and public opinion ............... 357 11.1 Introduction ................................ 357 11.2 Information for immigrants ...................... 358 11.2.1 General .............................. 358 11.2.2 Interview survey by the Commission ........... 360 11.2.3 Current measures ........................ 360 'The National Immigration and Naturalization Board . 364 ”The Immigrant News” Invandrartidningen ..... 367 Other forms of Government information for im- migrants ............................. 370 Municipalities and county councils ............ 371 Organizations and associations ............... 373

Columns for immigrants in Swedish newspapers . . . 374 ”Automatic” information for immigrants ........ 375 11.2.4 Proposals by the Commission ................ 376 1 1.3 Informing the receiving society .................... 380 11.3.1 Current measures ........................ 381 11.3.2 Research on prejudice .................... 383 11.3.3 Proposals by the Commission ................ 385 Chapter 12 Public authorities concerned ................. 389 12.1 The responsibility for measures for immigrants ......... 389 12.1.1 The present system ...................... 389 12.1.2 Proposals by the Commission ................ 390 12.2 The organization of the National Immigration and Naturaliza- tion Board Statens invandrarverk ................. 394 12.2.1 Previous considerations .................... 394 12.2.2 The present organization of the Board .......... 396 12.2.3 The Bureau for Adjustment Questions of the Board . 398 12.2.4 Proposals by the Commission ................ 402 12.3 Municipal activities for immigrants ................. 408 12.3.1 Previous considerations .................... 408 12.3.2 Current measures ........................ 411 Questionnaire to the municipalities by the Commis- don ................................ 412 Reference groups and joint bodies ............ 413 The immigrant service bureaux ............... 415 Co-ordinating measures by the National Immigration and Naturalization Board .................. 420 12.3.3 Proposals by the Commission ................ 421 12.4 Statistics, research and documentation ............... 430 12.4.1 Introduction ........................... 430 12.4.2 Migration statistics ....................... 431 Background ........................... 431 Proposals by the Commission ................ 432 12.4.3 Migration research ....................... 433 Background ........................... 433 Proposals by the Commission ................ 434 12.4.4 Documentation and ethnic archives ............ 434 Background ........................... 434 Proposals by the Commission ................ 435 Separate Statement ............................... 437

Appendix A Estimates of the cost of the Commission”s proposals . 439 AppendixB Draft ordinances concerning Government grants to immigrant and minority associations and to muni- cipalities . . ., .......... . ............... 445 Appendix C The Commission*s terms of reference .......... 447

Förkortningar

ABF Arbetarnas bildningsförbund ABU allmänna beredningsutskottet ADB automatisk databehandling AMS arbetsmarknadsstyrelsen

art. artikel

AT arbetstillstånd

BrB brottsbalken BT bosättningstillstånd BvL barnaVårdslagen dkr. danska kronor Ds departementsstencil EFA expertgruppen för utredningsverksamhet i arbetsmarknadsfrå- gor EG (EEC) Europeiska gemenskapen FCO fackliga centralorganisationen fmk finska mark

FN Förenta Nationerna FoB folk- och bostadsräkningen ILO International Labour Organization/Internationella arbetsorga- nisationen

IU invandrarutredningen KU konstitutionsutskottet Lgr läroplan för grundskolan LO Landsorganisationen i Sverige MbL medborgarskapslagen

mom. moment

nkr. norska kronor NSI nämnden för samhällsinformation

NU nordisk utredningsserie OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/ Organisationen för ekonomiskt samarbete och utveckling prop. proposition RB rättegångsbalken RPS rikspolisstyrelsen rskr riksdagsskrivelse SAF Svenska arbetsgivareföreningen

SOU 1974:69 SCB statistiska centralbyrån SFS svensk författningssamling SIDA Swedish International Development Agency/styrelsen för inter- nationell utveckling SIV statens invandrarverk SM statistiska meddelanden SOS Sveriges officiella statistik SOU statens offentliga utredningar Ss skolstadgan SU statsutskottet SÖ skolöverstyrelsen SÖ Sveriges överenskommelser med främmande makter TCO Tjänstemännens centralorganisation TF tryckfrihetsförordningen UD utrikesdepartementet UKÄ universitetskanslersämbetet UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Orga- nization/FN:s organisation för utbildning, vetenskap och kul- tur

UT uppehållstillstånd

åk. årskurs

Sammanfattning

lnvandrarutredningen (IU) tillsattes år 1968 med uppdrag att kartlägga invandrarnas och minoriteternas situation i Sverige och att föreslå samhällsåtgärder på olika områden för dessa grupper. Utredningen har varit parlamentariskt sammansatt.

IU har tidigare avgett två delbetänkanden, ett år 1971 med förslag om bl. a. grundutbildning i svenska för vuxna invandrare (SOU 1971:51) och ett år 1972 om tolkservice och tolkutbildning (SOU 197283).

I detta betänkande gör IU en genomgång av invandrarnas och de språkliga minoriteternas situation på olika samhällsområden. Nedan följer en sammanställning av IU:s överväganden och förslag.

I kapitel 3 formulerar IU målen för en framtida invandrar- och minoritetspolitik med utgångspunkt från begreppen jämlikhet, valfrihet och samverkan.

: Jämlikhetsmålet innebär ett fortsatt arbete för att invandrarna skall få samma möjligheter, rättigheter och skyldigheter som befolkningen i övrigt. J ämlikhetsmålet innebär även att alla grupper i samhället skall ha likvärdiga möjligheter att bibehålla och utveckla sitt modersmål och att utöva kulturverksamhet.

I Valfrihetsmålet innebär att medlemmar av språkliga minoriteter skall kunna välja i vilken grad de vill uppgå i en svensk kulturell identitet, och i vilken grad de vill bibehålla och utveckla den ursprungliga identiteten. Åtgärder för att bevara kontakten med ursprungslandets kultur under- lättar även valet mellan att stanna i Sverige eller återvända och återanpassas i ursprungslandet. D Samverkansmålet innebär att en ömsesidig och omfattande samverkan bör komma till stånd mellan invandrar- och minoritetsgrupperna och majoritetsbefolkningen. Samverkansmålet inbegriper även ömsesidig tole- rans och solidaritet mellan invandrare och den inhemska befolkningen.

I kapitel 4 behandlas arbetskraftsinvandringen och invandrarnas situation i arbetslivet.

D Strävandena att reglera arbetskraftsinvandringen bör fortsätta. Arbete och bostad skall vara ordnade före inresan. De fackliga organisationerna bör liksom hittills ha ett väsentligt inflytande över arbetsmarknadspröv- ningen av invandringen. Vid utformningen av den svenska invandrings-

politiken bör hänsyn tas till effekterna av migrationen på utvandrings- ländernas arbetsmarknad.

B En fortsatt satsning på bättre arbetsmiljö är en förutsättning för att även invandrarnas situation i arbetslivet skall kunna förbättras och att koncentrationen av invandrare till mindre eftertraktade arbeten och arbetsplatser skall kunna motverkas.

Arbetsmarknadens parter rekommenderas att förbättra introduktionen av invandrare i arbetslivet. Företagens tolkservice och arbetarskyddet för invandrare bör förbättras. Invandrarnas behov av insatser inom arbets- marknadsutbildningen bör uppmärksammas ytterligare.

Invandrarnas medverkan och inflytande i de fackliga organisationerna bör uppmuntras och underlättas för att stå i bättre proportion till deras andel av medlemmarna.

I kapitel 5 tas upp invandrarnas bostadssituation.

D Invandrarnas ojämna fördelning mellan olika bostadsområden har samma orsaker som skiktningen på bostadsmarknaden efter ålder och inkomst. Invandrarnas boendesituation bör förbättras inom ramen för de generella bostadspolitiska åtgärderna.

I kapitel 6 behandlas invandrarnas sociala situation.

C Alla i landet bosatta utlänningar bör efter en viss tids bosättning ha en lagfäst rätt till svensk folkpension.

Kommunerna bör svara för socialhjälpen till i Sverige varaktigt bosatta utländska medborgare, medan staten bör svara för kostnader för social- hjälp till övriga utlänningar. D Handläggningstiden i asylärenden bör förkortas.

Ökad hänsyn bör tas till invandrarnas behov inom barna- och ungdomsvården, den uppsökande verksamheten, sociala hemhjälpen, åldringsvården, nykterhetsvården och kriminalvården. D Ett erbjudande om allmän hälsoundersökning bör ges till alla utländska medborgare som invandrar till Sverige.

[ kapitel 7 föreslår IU en kulturpolitik för språkliga minoriteter.

El Fyra delmål bör gälla för en kulturpolitik för språkliga minoriteter: ökade möjligheter till delaktighet i det allmänna svenska kulturutbudet, till kontakt med ursprungslandet, till kulturell egenverksamhet och till kulturell växelverkan mellan minoriteterna och majoritetsbefolkningen. D Statens kulturråd bör disponera ett särskilt anslag på 3 milj. kr. för kulturell verksamhet för språkliga minoriteter. D [U och litteraturutredningen har tidigare gemensamt föreslagit att 12 milj. kr. utgår från staten för inköp av litteratur för språkliga minoriteter på de allmänna biblioteken. Därutöver krävs kompletterande insatser, bl. a. för att främja litteraturproduktion på minoritetsspråk i Sverige. Tidningar och tidskrifter utgivna av invandrar- och minoritetsgrupper bör ges stöd.

D Programutbudet i radio och TV för språkliga minoriteter i Sverige bör ökas så att det står i rimlig proportion till dessa gruppers andel av licensbetalarna. D Statligt stöd bör utgå till teaterverksamhet bland språkliga minoriteter.

] kapitel 8 behandlas invandrarbarnens utbildningssituation och frågor om minoritetsorienterad utbildning.

C Målet för språkträningen för invandrarbarn i förskolan bör vara att främja aktiv tvåspråkighet. D Kommunerna bör vara skyldiga att anordna hemspråksundervisning för invandrarbarn i grundskolan, men denna undervisning bör vara frivillig för eleven. En utökning av hemspråksundervisningen är nödvändig för att utveckla aktiv tvåspråkighet hos barnen. Kommunerna bör få statsbidrag för information till lärare, skolpersonal och föräldrar om modersmålets betydelse för barnets utveckling. Även stödundervisningen för invandrarbarn bör utvidgas. DSärskild utbildning och fortbildning bör komma till stånd för hem- språkslärare och lärare i stödundervisning för invandrarbarn. Den nuvarande läromedelssituationen är otillfredsställande. 3 Minoritetsspråkens ställning vid universiteten bör förbättras.

I kapitel 9 behandlas invandrarna i föreningslivet.

3 Ett särskilt statsbidrag på 2,5 milj. kr. bör utgå årligen till invandrar- och minoritetsorganisationernas verksamhet. D Projektbidrag bör utgå till trossamfund med många invandrare, liksom även till andra organisationer för verksamhet med anknytning till invandrarfrågor. Invandrarna bör uppmuntras att delta i svensk förenings- verksamhet.

I kapitel 10 tas upp medinflytande- och medborgarskapsfrågor.

JÅterstående skillnader i lagstiftningen mellan i Sverige bosatta ut- ländska och svenska medborgare bör avlägsnas i största möjliga utsträck- ning.

lnvandrarnas möjligheter till politiskt inflytande bör vidgas. IU har med tillfredsställelse noterat att frågan om kommunal rösträtt och valbarhet för invandrare har gjorts till föremål för särskild skyndsam utredning. D Kvalifikationstiden för svenskt medborgarskap bör sänkas till två år för nordbor och fem år för icke- nordbor. Försörjningsvillkoret i samband med förvärv av svenskt medborgarskap bör slopas. Expeditionsavgiften för att få svenskt medborgarskap bör tas bort. Vissa frågor om barns medborgarskap bör ses över.

I kapitel 1 l behandlas information och opinionsbildning.

3 Samhällsinformationen till invandrarna på det egna språket börutvidgas; bl. a. bör invandrartidningen och statens invandrarverk få ökade resurser. C För att allmänhetens inställning till invandrare och minoriteter skall

påverkas och förbättras krävs långsiktiga insatser, främst inom utbild- ningsväsendet.

I kapitel 12 tas upp ansvarsfördelningen och samordningen mellan myndigheterna m. m. för åtgärder för invandrare.

C Varje myndighet och berörd organisation bör bära sitt ansvar för åtgärder för invandrare på samma sätt som för befolkningen i övrigt. D Statens invandrarverk bör ges ökade ekonomiska och personella resurser att samordna myndigheternas åtgärder och vissa förändringari verkets organisation bör vidtas. DEtt invandrarråd med 15 ledamöter knyts till invandrarverket som rådgivande organ. Ledamöterna utses av regeringen. I rådet ingår företrädare för invandrar— och minoritetsgrupper i Sverige. D Kommunerna bör informeras bättre om planerad invandring. D Statsbidrag bör utgå till kommunerna med 50 procent för särskild informationsverksamhet för invandrare (t. ex. i form av invandrarbyrå). B En basorganisation för migrationsforskning bör upprättas och 1,5 milj. kr. bör årligen utgå för forskning i invandrarfrågor.

I en separat bilagedel (SOU l974:70) finns beskrivningar av invandrar- och minoritetsgrupperna i Sverige, invandrar- och minoritetsorganisa- tionerna, IU:s intervjuundersökning och av situationen i några andra invandringsländer. Där redovisas också behandlingen av invandrar- och minoritetsfrågor i riksdagen. Vidare redovisas en omfattande undersök- ning om ”Svenskars fördomar mot invandrare” utförd av professor Arne Trankell.

I en ”exempelsamling” (Ds A 1974z4) ges ca 75 exempel på åtgärder som vidtagits till förmån för invandrare och språkliga minoriteter, främst på enskilt initiativ.

Summary

Statistical background to the work of the Commission

At the turn of the year 1973/74 there were 397,000 foreign nationals domiciled in Sweden. This number corresponds to 4.9 per cent of the total population of Sweden (8.1 million). The number of naturalized Swedish subjects at the same time can be estimated at approximately 240,000.

Immigration is estimated to have increased the population of Sweden between 1944 and 1970 by approximately 650,000 (roughly 8 per cent of the population as a whole and 22 per cent of the entire population increase occurring in the same period). This figure includes both immigrants themselves and children born to them in Sweden.

Immigration in Sweden has varied a great deal from year to year (see Figure 2_1), the peak years being 1969 and 1970. In the latter year, 73,500 persons immigrated to Sweden while 21.300 emigrated. In 1972 and 1973 emigration exceeded immigration. These variations reflect the fluctuations of the business cycle in Sweden.

As a result of post-war immigration, Sweden has acquired a consider- able number of linguistic minorities. Formerly, compared to other European countries, Sweden was extremely homogeneous both linguisti- cally and culturally speaking. The only native linguistic minorities who have been long established in Sweden are the Lapps (10,000 persons) and the Tornedal Finns (30,000). Both of these groups live in the northernmost parts of Sweden.

More than 62 per cent of a total of some 400,000 foreign nationals in Sweden come from the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway), while' 19 per cent come from the European Mediterranean countries, 13 per cent from other European countries and only 6 per cent from countries outside Europe. The largest groups of foreign nationals in Sweden come from Finland (197,000), Yugoslavia (41.000), Denmark (29,000), Norway (27,000), Germany (19,000), Greece (17,000) and Italy (7.000).

At the end of the last war large numbers of refugees came to Sweden, e.g. from the Baltic countries. The Esthonians (approximately 25,000) are the largest Baltic group in Sweden.

The activities of the Commission

The Royal Commission on Immigration was appointed by the Govern- ment of Sweden in 1968 to study the position of immigrants and of linguistic and ethnic minorities in Sweden and to propose measures of social policy in various sectors on behalf of these groups. Most of the seven members of the Commission have been M.P.s. The Commission has had a full-time secretariat as well as the services of a large number of experts in different fields. The present report, submitted to the Government of Sweden in September 1974 for further action, marks the conclusion of the work of the Commission.

Previously the Commission has published two interim reports. The first of these, presented in 1971 (SOU 1971:51), dealt with the educational situation of adult immigrants and among other things proposed legislation entitling immigrants to paid leave of absence from their work in order to attend 240 hours' Swedish lessons. This proposal became law in 1973. The second interim report, presented in 1972 (SOU 1972:83), dealt with interpreter services and the training of interpreters to meet the needs of immigrants. The proposals thus made have prompted certain initiatives by the Government.

Contents of the report

The present report is the main report of the Commission. In order to give English—speaking readers some idea of its import, the list of contents has been translated into English, vid. p. 11. The headings of all the various tables have also been translated. A summary of the Commission's deliberations and proposals is given below.

Chapters 1—2 expound the premises of the Commission's proposals (the terms of reference and activities of the Commission, the previous consideration given in Sweden to immigrant and minority affairs, a statistical survey of immigration in Sweden and migration in Europe, and international norms concerning the treatment of immigrants).

Chapter 3 deals with the goals of Swedish policy regarding immigrants and minorities. In many other countries where the problems of linguistic or ethnic minorities have long been a part of the political structure, it would be impossible to link immigrant and minority affairs together as the Commission has done in this report. In Sweden, however, minority issues (apart from the status of the Lapp minority, which was expressly excluded by the Commission's terms of reference) have arisen only with the immigration of the past few decades. Groups in Sweden which can now be regarded as ”established minorities” were originally immigrants to Sweden. The Commission has therefore found it both natural and useful to treat immigrant and minority affairs under the same heading.

As the Commission sees it, Swedish policy regarding immigrants and minorities can be said to rest upon four premises.

D Migration between-countries can be expected to continue, and Sweden must therefore be prepared also in future to receive and train newly

arrived immigrants and to provide for the solution of their acute social problems. D A large number of immigrants will probably settle permanently in Sweden, whose native linguistic minorities will consequently be joined by new population groups speaking other languages besides Swedish and having a partly different identity which in many cases they will be anxious to retain. This need has already become manifest in a number of groups through the formation of separate associations and a desire for public support for the preservation of linguistic and cultural identity. D Many of the immigrants coming to Sweden will eventually re-emigrate, which may involve new problems of adjustment and adaptation for themselves but above all for their children. These problems can be alleviated by giving immigrants the opportunity of active contact with their own language, cultural heritage and native country while they are still in Sweden. D A goal for future work on behalf of immigrants will be, as in the past, that they are treated on an equal basis with Swedish citizens. There will be an increasing demand for cultural exchanges between Sweden and the immigrants” countries of origin. Swedish society will continue to become more international in its ways.

Given these premises, the goals of future immigrant and minority policy are defined by the Commission in terms of equality, freedom of choice and partnership. The goal of equality implies continued work to give immigrants the same living standard as the rest of the population. The goal of freedom of choice implies that public initiatives are to be taken to assure members of linguistic minorities domiciled in Sweden of a genuine choice between retaining and developing their original cultural identity and assuming a Swedish cultural identity. Measures for the preservation of links with the culture of the country of origin also make it easier for individual immigrants and their children to choose between Staying in SWeden and being re-integrated in their country of origin. The goal of partnership implies that the different immigrant and minority groups on the one hand and the native population on the other both stand to benefit from working together. This presupposes that the different minority groups are regarded as equal partners in the development of society, which in turn presupposes that they are given the necessary support to enable them to form associations of their own. The goal of partnership also implies that immigrants are to be involved in Swedish social issues and that it is to be made easier for them to play an active part in Swedish politics and trade union affairs.

In chapters 4—12 the Commission considers the practical conse— quences of these principles.

The position of immigrants in working life is dealt with in chapter 4. The Commission emphasizes that labour immigration should, as previous— ly, proceed on an organized basis, with employment, housing and — in the case of immigrants from outside Scandinavia — work permits arranged prior to entry. The Commission also underlines the importance

of improved introductory arrangements at individual firms and of more adequate industrial safety arrangements on behalf of immigrants. A very large proportion of immigrants belong to trade unions, but they still play only a limited part in union affairs. The Commission recommends that trade unions encourage more immigrants to participate in the conduct of union business.

Chapter 5 deals with the housing conditions of immigrants. The housing conditions of immigrants resemble those of other social groups with limited resources, who for various socio-economic reasons are at a disadvantage in the housing market. The uneven distribution of immi— grants between housing areas is also due to the same causes as the strict segregation of the housing market according to age, type of family and income. The housing situation of immigrants should therefore be improved by general measures of housing policy and not by measures specially designed for immigrants alone.

Chapter 6, concerning social affairs, observes that practically all the social benefits established in Sweden by the reforms of the past few decades are also available to foreign nationals domiciled in Sweden. On the other hand aliens are not entitled to basic retirement pension in Sweden. The Commission therefore proposes that all foreign nationals who have been domiciled in Sweden for a certain period of time should be entitled to basic pension benefits on the same terms as Swedish subjects. Social assistance has long been available on equal terms to native Swedes and foreign nationals domiciled in Sweden. The Com- mission proposes a certain re—apportionment between State and local authorities of the cost of social assistance to foreign nationals. The Commission also advocates increased efforts on behalf of immigrants in the context of child and youth welfare, active social welfare, social guidance, public domestic assistance, care of the aged, temperance policy and criminal welfare. It has been a particular task of the Commission to consider the question of compulsory health checks for immigrants. The Commission does not believe any such compulsory measures to be necessary, given the satisfactory state of existing health services for immigrants.

In Chapter 7 the Commission proposes a special cultural policy on behalf of linguistic minorities. This policy should have four partial objectives: greater opportunities for immigrants and linguistic minorities to share Swedish cultural amenities in general, to maintain contact with their countries of origin, to pursue their own cultural activities and to maintain a cultural exchange with the majority population. In order for these objectives to be attained, special State resources will have to be provided. The Commission proposes that the National Cultural Council, to be established in 1974 as a co—ordinating body of cultural policy in Sweden, be made a special allocation of Skr 3 million for the promotion of cultural activities among linguistic minorities. This allocation should among other things be applied to theatre activities and the provision of literature (see below).

The Commission has examined various parts of the cultural sector in

terms of these four partial objectives. As regards cultural co-operation with other countries, the Commission has found that insufficient allowance is made for the need for co-operation with the immigrants” countries of origin. At present this co-operation is limited. The Commission has previously proposed, together with the Literature Commission, that far—reaching measures be taken with regard to the provision of literature for the linguistic minorities. Proposals on this point have been jointly submitted by the two Commissions in the report of the Literature Commission entitled ”The Book” (SOU 1974z5).l Among other things these proposals envisage a non-recurrent State grant of Skr 12 million to public libraries towards the purchasing ofliterature for the linguistic minorities. In the present report the Commission proposes certain supplementary measures, including support for the production of literature in minority languages. The Commission also advocates support for the ethnic press and comprehensive support for theatrical activities on behalf of linguistic minorities in Sweden (above all for the Finnish-speaking population). The Commission also stresses the importance of films, music and folklore from the immigrants” original countries being made available in Sweden.

At present Swedish radio and television broadcasts in Finnish total approximately seven and three hours per week respectively. There are no regular broadcasts for other immigrant groups. The Commission is persuaded that 'radio and television broadcasts for immigrants and linguistic minorities should be greatly increased, since the present range of programmes cannot be said to be in any reasonable proportion to the numbers of licence holders represented by these groups.

Since the educational situation of adult immigrants was dealt with in the first interim report of the Commission, chapter 8 is mainly concerned with the education of immigrant children. An Act passed by the Swedish Riksdag in 1968 entitles immigrant children to auxiliary instruction at the comprehensive school totalling six periods per week, of which two may be used for lessons in a child*s native tongue. In 1972 there were 9,000 immigrant pupils attending lessons in their native languages in 116 municipalities.

ln'the light of experience of this instruction and of research findings concerning the importance of the native tongue to child development, the Commission defines the objective in the education of immigrant children as being to develop active bilingualism. However, this calls for a major expansion of native language teaching at the comprehensive school. The Commission proposes that municipalities be enjoined to provide native language instruction for children with other native languages than Swedish, though on the children”s part this instruction should be optional. The present number of periods allocated being too small to develop active bilingualism, increased auxiliary instruction is proposed

' An English summary in this report (pp. 459—460) outlines the improvements proposed in the literary sector in behalf of linguistic minorities.

for immigrant children in comprehensive schools, as well as measures at pre—school and upper secondary levels designed to promote active bilingualism among immigrant children.

Chapter 9 is entitled Associations and denominations. In this chapter the Commission begins by proposing that Swedish voluntary organizations be granted State support for activities undertaken on behalf of immigrants. Altogether there are some 800 immigrant and minority associations in Sweden. At present these associations receive a relatively limited amount of financial support from the State and local authorities. The Commission proposes a special Government allocation of Skr 2.5 million for support to the activities of immigrant and minority associations. This allocation is primarily intended for the ten or so leading nation-wide associations of immigrants and minorities in Sweden, but it is also proposed that smaller organizations be made eligible for Government grants. It is proposed that these grants be distributed via the National Immigration and Naturalization Board.

The Commission also considers various matters relating to religious denominations consisting predominantly of immigrants and proposes among other things increased Government support to the activities of such bodies.

In chapter 10, entitled Political influence and citizenship, the Com- mission appraises the legal status of immigrants and proposes the elimination, to as great an extent as possible, of residual legal distinctions between Swedes and foreign nationals.

The Commission also underlines the importance of a reinforcement of immigrant influence in trade union and political affairs at all levels of society. The Commission notes with satisfaction that a special Royal Commission has been appointed to investigate as expeditiously as possible the technical and other conditions attached to the award of municipal voting rights and eligibility to all immigrants in time for the 1976 elections.

The Commission has also undertaken a review of current nationality legislation in Sweden and proposes among other things that the qualification period for Swedish citizenship be reduced to five years for non-Nordic citizens (the present qualifying period being seven years) and to two years (at present three years) for citizens of the other Nordic countries.

Information matters are dealt with in chapter 11. The Commission advocates greater efforts to ensure that social information in Sweden reaches immigrants. The proposals made include a certain expansion of ”The Immigrant News” and of information activities run by the National Immigration and Naturalization Board.

One important issue which the Commission has had to consider concerns the possibility of influencing public attitudes towards immi- grants and persons of alien ethnic origin. To shed light on this issue, the Commission has sponsored a special survey of prejudices entertained by Swedes concerning immigrants (see below). This survey has led the Commission to conclude that comprehensive actions in the form of advertising campaigns and so on with a view to conditioning public

attitudes to immigrants are of dubious worth. For instance, one cannot discount the risk of such information drives having a negative influence by reinforcing existing prejudice. The principal routes recommended by the Commission for opinion creation of this kind are the education system and greater contact with persons of alien origin.

The final chapter of the report (chapter 12) is entitled Public authorities concerned and deals among other things with the division of labour between the authorities concerned with the implemen- tation of immigration policy. The Commission underlines the importance of fully implementing the principle adopted in 1968 by the Swedish Riksdag concerning the division of responsibility between public auth- orities, namely that the authority responsible for a particular sphere in relation to Swedish subjects must be responsible for the same Sphere in relation to immigrants. Special measures are required, however, at both central and local levels, for the co-ordination of measures for immigrant adjustment. The National Immigration and Naturalization Board has existed at central level since 1969, its task being among other things to assume responsi- bility for the co-ordination of public policies on behalf of immigrants. The Commission proposes a reorganization of the Board (cf. organiza- tion sketch in section 12.2.4). Firstly the Commission recommends the affiliation to the Board of a consultative body in the form of an Immigrant Council of 15 members representing immigrant and minority groups. It should be the duty of the Board to consult this Council on policy matters affecting the social and cultural conditions of immigrants and concerning the guidelines for the distribution of State grants to immigrant and minority associations, which the Commission has pro- posed (_chap. 9) should be distributed via the Board. The Commission also proposes the establishment of two units at the National Immigration and Naturalization Board to be responsible for measures concerning the social integration of immigrants, viz. a unit for survey and co-ordination activities and an information unit. It is also proposed that the Board be given comprehensive operative means for activities designed to improve the conditions of immigrants.

There are at present rather more than forty local Immigrant Service Bureaux, most of them financed entirely by the municipalities. Their task is to provide immigrants with the services of interpreters, handle contacts between immigrants and the relevant authorities and institu- tions, and also to help immigrants through guidance and information. The Commission proposes the award of Government grants correspond- ing to 50 per cent of municipal expenditure on special information activities for immigrants. These grants are to be distributed by the National Immigration and Naturalization Board.

In chapter 12 the Commission also considers the need for better statistics concerning migratory movements and ethnic minorities. The Commission also proposes the establishment in Sweden of a base organization for migration research.

A ppendices

The appendices to the report are published in a separate volume (SOU 1974z70).

Appendix 1 contains a description of the various immigrant and minority groups in Sweden. Appendix 2 is a presentation of a questionnaire survey of 800 immigrant and minority associations in Sweden.

Appendix 3 describes the interview survey of immigrants and Swedes conducted by the Commission in 1969 together with the expert group for survey activities on labour market affairs (EFA). The survey covered a statistically representative sample of 1,000 Finns, 1,000 Germans, 1,000 Italians, 500 Yugoslavs and a control group of 1,000 Swedes. An English summary of the results of the survey concerning the effects of immigration is included in the EFA report, SOU 1974z29 p. 476.

Appendix 4 is a presentation of the study of ”Preiudices of Native Swedes concerning Immigrants” carried out by Professor Arne Trankell on behalf of the Commission. Trankell's study is principally based on the interview survey carried out by the Commission during the autumn of 1969, which also included questions concerning Swedish attitudes to immigrants and to Swedish immigration policy. Trankellls study also refers to a number of studies of Swedish prejudices regarding immigrants carried out by the so-called IMFO group at the University of Stockholm. ' Trankell's study shows that prejudices can be regarded as a special instance of a fundamentally human mode of behaviour which the individual needs in order to be able to find his bearings in the world around him and in his dealings with other people. The 'pathological' idiosyncrasies of prejudices (their irrational content, their unreasonable and antipathetic character) can be attributed to the social and economic insecurity in which prejudice arises and/or the lack of experience and knowledge of other cultures and people from other countries which is characteristic of those who entertain the most conspicuous prejudice against immigrants.

Trankell's view is that the role of prejudice in human adjustment to the surrounding world is to defend the primary interests of the individual or the group (housing, family life, economy, work, social intercourse etc.) when they are threatened by other people or groups of people. This means that every person can be confronted by a situation inwhich he has to resort to prejudice in order to defend his interests. The implacability of prejudice (whereby 3 person will adhere to it in the teeth of all common sense and reality) is ascribed by Trankell to its function as a defence against the anxiety which the menace from immigrants inculcates in people whose own living conditions are insecure. In a special summary Trankell explains how our ability to counteract or prevent prejudice is affected by the function of prejudice in the adjustment of the individual to the surrounding world. The main thesis is that prejudice need not be regarded as intrinsically evil but rather as a symptom of individual security being threatened. The author concludes

that ”we cannot dispel prejudice and the hostile attitude it sanctions towards immigrants merely by refuting the erroneous content of the antipathetic ideas involved. If we insist on making the attempt, people are liable to dig their heels in, in which case the removal of their prejudice still further from the control of reason will aggravate their antipathy.”

ln his concluding argument, Trankell observes that it is ”the insecurity out of which prejudice arises that is the evil we have to identify and recify. The intrinsic evil is not the feeling of insecurity but the material or existential foundation of that feeling In all of these instances the evil factor is identical with . .. the threat to their own existence which cannot be controlled and which overwhelms people at the same time as they are criticized and are themselves ashamed on account of their feelings. To liberate them from this evil we must create a security which is the property of Everyman, i.e. a social and economic equality which goes much further than that we are familiar with today . . . But prejudice . . can also be rooted in an insecurity due to our ignorance. Lack of insight concerning the character of the world and ourselves makes us a defenceless prey to superstition and all kinds of delusions . . . The eradication of this evil demands a widespread improve- ment of educational standards in our country. This does not mean supplying Swedish households with brochures containing information on the background and social circumstances of immigrants, which we vainly hope will be read and' assimilated by the uninformed. Instead it means letting the educational revolution go on, opening up the universities on the grand scale, allowing more and more people to climb higher and higher through the various storeys of the education system and finding new ways of taking care of "those v'vho"fall by "the ways'ide or belive themselves too old to benefit from a better knowledge of the world and themselves."

Appendix 5 contains a summary of Immigrant and minority affairs considered by the Swedish Riksdag 1945—1973. Appendix 6 contains certain international surveys, among them a relatively exhaustive description of immigration policy in Canada and of measures taken there for the promotion of a multi-cultural society.

In 1973 the Commission published a separate research report on The Position of Immigrants in the Swedish City of Malmö, compiled on behalf of the Commission by Professor Harald Swedner (Ds In l973:l 1).

1. IU:s arbete

I.] Direktiven

Genom beslut den 28 maj 1968 bemyndigade Kungl. Maj:t chefen för dåvarande inrikesdepartementet att tillkalla högst sju sakkunniga med uppdrag att utreda invandrares anpassningsproblem m. m. De sakkunniga antog namnet invandrarutredningen (IU). Direktiven för IU, som har formen av ett anförande till samma dags statsrådsprotokoll över inrikes- ärenden av chefen för inrikesdepartementet, statsrådet Rune Johansson, återfinns i sin helhet i bilaga C.

I sammandrag kan IU:s uppdrag anges vara att kartlägga invandrarnas och de etniska minoriteternas situation i Sverige och att föreslå samhälls— åtgärder på olika områden för dessa grupper. Nedan återfinns en kort sammanställning av direktiven.

|:] Sverige kommer sannolikt även framdeles att vara ett invandringsland. Olika förhållanden, som t. ex. växlingar i konjunkturen, kan visserligen återverka på invandringens omfattning, men det är troligt att invand- ringen till Sverige på längre sikt kommer att förete ungefär samma bild som under efterkrigstiden. EI Även om utlänningar som bor i Sverige och svenska medborgare numera i huvudsak har samma rättsliga ställning på en rad väsentliga områden möter emellertid invandrare i Sverige många anpassnings- problem. Främst har dessa problem samband med att de talar annat språk, är vana vid andra samhälls— och levnadsförhållanden eller har annan religion. Dessa problem har blivit alltmer uppenbara efter hand som invandringen från mera avlägsna länder har ökat. D Utredningen skall först kartlägga de speciella problem som invandrare möter i Sverige. Det bör uppmärksammas att anpassningsproblemen kan vara olika för invandrare av olika nationaliteter och att problemen kan ändra karaktär efter hand som vistelsen här eventuellt övergår till per